• borst
  • lavender
  • dandelion

Recipes starting with B

Basil
  • Botanical: Ocimum basilicum L.
  • Family: Lamiaceae
  • Known as: Basilikum, Königskraut,
  • Old Use: culinary; medicinal
  • Aroma: floral, sharp

Basil

Common or Sweet Basil which is used in medicine and also for culinary purposes, especially in France, is a hairy, labiate plant, growing about 3 feet high. The stem is obtusely quadrangular, the labiate flowers are white, in whorls in the axils of the leaves, the calyx with the upper lobe rounded and spreading. The leaves, greyish-green beneath and dotted with dark oil cells, are opposite, 1 inch long and 1/3 inch broad, stalked and peculiarly smooth, soft and cool to the touch, and if slightly bruised exale a delightful scent of cloves.

Beech
  • Botanical: Fagus sylvatica
  • Family: Fagaceae
  • Known as: European Beech, Rothbuche, Buche
  • Old Use: culinary; medicinal

Beech

It is a large tree, capable of reaching heights of up to 50 m (160 ft) tall and 3 m (9.8 ft) trunk diameter, though more typically 25–35 m (82–115 ft) tall and up to 1.5 m (4.9 ft) trunk diameter. A 10-year-old sapling will stand about 4 m (13 ft) tall. It has a typical lifespan of 150 to 200 years, though sometimes up to 300 years. 30 years are needed to attain full maturity (as compared to 40 for American beech).

Beet
  • Botanical: Beta vulgaris
  • Family: Chenopodiaceae
  • Known as: Beet Root, Garden Beet, Mangold, Runkelrübe, Zucker­rü­be, Rote Bete, Rote Rübe
  • Old Use: culinary; medicinal
  • Aroma: balsamic, oriental, sweet

Beet

A polymorphic biennial (flowering in the second year of growth), up to 2 m tall when in flower.

Basal leaves forming a rosette.

Flowers are small, green, borne in clusters subtended by bracts, forming dense, usually branched inflorescences. Each flower contains two stigmas (female parts).

‘Seeds’ are actually fruits that are attached to each other and enveloped in a woody covering (calyces). 

Belladonna Atropa
  • Botanical: Atropa belladonna
  • Family: Solanaceae
  • Known as: Atropa belladonna, Belladonna, Devil's Berries, Death Cherries, Deadly Nightshade, Tollkirsche
  • Old Use: medicinal

Belladonna Atropa

The root is thick, fleshy and whitish, about 6 inches long, or more, and branching. It is perennial. The purplishcoloured stem is annual and herbaceous. It is stout, 2 to 4 feet high, undivided at the base, but dividing a little above the ground into three - more rarely two or four branches, each of which again branches freely.

Bergamot
  • Botanical: Citrus bergamia
  • Family: Rutaceae
  • Known as: Bergamia, Bitter Orange, Citrus bergamot, Citrus bergamia Risso, Bergamotte,
  • Old Use: culinary; medicinal
  • Aroma: citrus, fruity, sweet

Bergamot

Erect, unarmed, much branched tree up to 12 m tall, with trunk up to 25 cm in diameter; in cultivation trees are pruned up to 4-5 m in height with crown diameter of about 5 m. Leaves alternate, simple, glandular, aromatic when bruised; petiole about 13 mm long, moderately winged, articulated near the blade; blade lanceolate, up to 12 cm x 6 cm, in upper third part weakly indented. Inflorescence terminal, racemose, many-flowered; pedicel up to 8 mm long; flowers bisexual, 4-5(-10)-merous,

Betel Palm
  • Botanical: Areca catechu
  • Family: Palmacea
  • Known as: Areca Palm, Areca Nut Palm, Indian Nut, Pinang Palm, Bunga, Pinang, Betelnusspalme, Betelpalme, Katechupalme, Arekapalme
  • Old Use: medical, culinary
  • Aroma: fresh

Betel Palm

Areca catechu is a medium-sized and palm tree, growing straight to 20 m tall, with a trunk 10–15 cm in diameter. The leaves are 1.5–2 m long, pinnate, with numerous, crowded leaflets.

 

Birch Sweet
  • Botanical: Betula lenta
  • Family: Betulaceae
  • Known as: Betula alba, Black Birch, Cherry Birch, Mahogany Birch, Spice Birch, Maibaum, Frühlingsbaum, Besenbaum, Besenbirke, Bork, Bark, Hexenbesen, Hängebirke, Moorbirke, Rauhbirke, Sandbirke, Warzenbirke, Weissbirke
  • Old Use: culinary and medicinal use
  • Aroma: sweet

Birch Sweet

It is a  A medium sized tree with a single straight trunk reaching up to 60 feet tall.

Leaf: Alternate, simple, pinnately-veined, ovate, with an acute tip and cordate base, singly or irregularly doubly, sharply serrate margins, 2 to 4 inches long, petiole is stout and pubescent, dark shiny green above, paler below.

Bitter Apple
  • Botanical: Citrullus colocynthis
  • Family: Cucurbilaceae
  • Known as: Colocynth Pulp. Bitter Cucumber.
  • Old Use: medical, culinary, industry

Bitter Apple

It is an annual plant resembling the common watermelon.The roots are large, fleshy and perennial leading to a high survival rate thanks to the long tap root. The vine-like stems spread in all directions for a few meters looking for something to climb over. If present, shrubs and herbs are preferred and climbed by means of axiliary branching tendrils. The leaves are very similar to watermelon leaves: they are palmate, angular with 3-7 divided lobes.

The flowers are yellow and solitary in the axes of leaves and are borne by yellow-greenish peduncles. Each has a subcampanulated five-lobed corolla and a five-parted calyx. They are monoecious therefore the male (stamens) and the female reproductive parts (pistils and ovary) are borne in different flowers on the same plant. The male flowers’ calyx is shorter than the corolla. They have 5 stamens, 4 of which are coupled and 1 is single with monadelphous anther. The female flowers have 3 staminoids and a 3-carpels ovary. The two sexes are distinguishable by observing the globular and hairy inferior ovary of the female flowers. A Citrullus colocynthis female flower. Iranian Citrullus colocynthis. Ripe fruit of Citrullus colocynthis.

The fruit is smooth, spheric with a 5–10 cm diameter and extremely bitter at taste. The calyx englobe the yellow-green fruit which becomes marble (yellow stripes) at maturity. The mesocarp is filled with a soft, dry and spongy white pulp, in which the seeds are embedded. Each of the 3 carpels bears 6 seeds. Each plant produces 15 to 30 fruits.

The seeds are grey and 5 mm long and 3 mm wide. They are edible but similarly bitter, nutty-flavored and rich in fat and protein. 

Black Cutch
  • Botanical: Acacia catechu
  • Family: Leguminosae
  • Known as: Senegalia catechu, khair, kachu, catechu, cachou, cutchtree, black cutch, black catechu, Gerber Akazie, Katechu Akazie
  • Old Use: medical, industry, culinary

Black Cutch

Plant is of small to moderate size of about 15m hight. Bark is dark grey or grayish-brown.

Leaves are bipinnately compound, with 9-30 pairs of pinnae and a glandular rachis; leaflets 16-50 pairs, oblong-linear, 2-6 mm long, glabrous or pubescent. Flowers are 5-10 cm long (auxiliary spikes, pentamerous), white to pale yellow and with a campanulate calyx of 1-1.5 mm length, and a corolla of 2.5-3 mm length. Stamens are numerous and far exerted from the corolla, with white to yellowish white filaments.

Black Pine
  • Botanical: Pinus nigra
  • Family: Pinaceae
  • Known as: Pinus laricio, Schwarzkiefer, Schwarzföhre
  • Old Use: medicine, industry
  • Aroma: earthy

Black Pine

Pinus nigra is a large coniferous evergreen tree, growing to 20–55 metres (66–180 ft) tall at maturity. The bark is grey to yellow-brown, and is widely split by flaking fissures into scaly plates, becoming increasingly fissured with age. The leaves ("needles") are thinner and more flexible in western populations.

The ovulate and pollen cones appear from May to June. The mature seed cones are 5–10 cm (rarely to 11 cm) long, with rounded scales; they ripen from green to pale grey-buff or yellow-buff in September to November, about 18 months after pollination. The seeds are dark grey, 6–8 mm long, with a yellow-buff wing 20–25 mm long; they are wind-dispersed when the cones open from December to April. Sexual maturity is reached at 15–40 years; large seed crops are produced at 2–5 year intervals. P. nigra is moderately fast growing, at about 30–70 centimetres (12–28 in) per year. It usually has a rounded conic form, that becomes irregular with age. The tree can be long-lived, with some trees over 500 years old. It needs full sun to grow well, is intolerant of shade, and is resistant to snow and ice damage.

Black Poplar
  • Botanical: Populus nigra
  • Family: Salicaceae
  • Known as: Schwarz Pappel, Saarbaum
  • Old Use: medical, culinary, industry

Black Poplar

It is a medium-sized to large deciduous tree, reaching 20–30 m (rarely 40 m) tall, with a trunk up to 1.5 m diameter, though some old individuals have grown much bigger (more than 3 meters DBH for several trees in France). The leaves are diamond-shaped to triangular, 5–8 cm long and 6–8 cm broad, green on both surfaces.[2] The species is dioecious (male and female flowers on different plants), with flowers in catkins and pollination by wind. The black poplar grows in low-lying areas of moist ground.

Blessed thistle
  • Botanical: Cnicus benedictus
  • Family: Asteraceae
  • Known as: Cnicus,Cnicus benedictus, St. Benedict's thistle, Blessed Thistle, Holy Thistle, Spotted Thistle, Benediktenkraut, Kardobenedikte, Benediktendistel, Benediktenwurz, Bitterdistel, Bernhardinerwurzel, Bornwurz, Natterkraut
  • Old Use: medicinal
  • Aroma: herbaceius

Blessed thistle

It is an annual plant growing to 60 cm tall, with leathery, hairy leaves up to 30 cm long and 8 cm broad, with small spines on the margins. The flowers are yellow, produced in a dense flowerhead (capitulum) 3-4 cm diameter, surrounded by numerous spiny basal bracts.

Boldo
  • Botanical: Peumus boldus
  • Family: Monimiaceae
  • Known as: Boldea fragrans, Peumus fragrans, boldo, boldu, boldus, boldoa, boldina, baldina, molina
  • Old Use: medicinal; culinary
  • Aroma: sweet

Boldo

Boldo is an evergreen tree or shrub growing up to six metres in height. It belongs to the monimiaceae family, which are closely related to the laurel family. It is dioecious.

Boldo's light grey-green leathery leaves are elliptical-oval, entire, and have light-coloured tubercles on the surface. They have a characteristic odour and a burning-spicy, slightly bitter taste. The intensely fragrant radial flowers are white or yellowish and arranged in an inflorescence. The oval, aromatic pitted fruits are edible.

Boldo flowers throughout the year.

Buckbean
  • Botanical: Menyanthes trifoliata
  • Family: Menyanthaceae
  • Known as: Common bog bean, Bachgräslein, Bachgräsli, Biberklee, Bitterblad, Bitterblatt, Bitterklee, Bocksbohnenblätter, Bohnenblad, Butterklee, Dreeblatt, Dreiblatt, Dreiblättriger Fieberklee, Feverkrut, Fieberklee, Fröschekohl, Gallkraut, Kreuzklee
  • Old Use: once-dreaded scurvy

Buckbean

It is a green, glabrous plant, with creeping rootstock and procumbent stem, varying in length according to situation, covered by the sheaths of the leaves, which are on long, fleshy, striated petioles and three-partite, the leaflets being entire and about 2 inches long and 1 broad. It blossoms from May to July, the flowers being borne on long stalks, 6 to 18 inches high, longer than the leaves and clustered together in a thick short spike, rendering them very conspicuous. The corollas, 3/4 inch across, are outwardly rose-coloured and inwardly white and hairy, with reddish stamens. The Buckbean is one of the prettiest of our wild flowers deserving of cultivation in the garden, where it grows and thrives well, if planted in peat with water constantly round the roots.

Buckthorn
  • Botanical: Rhamnus cathartica
  • Family: Rhamnaceae
  • Known as: Buckthorn, Rhamnus frangula, Alder Dogwood, Arrow Wood, Black Dogwood, Purgierkreuzdorn, Echter Kreuzdorn, Amselbeere, Chelgerli, Färberbeere, Hexendorn, Hirschdorn, Kreuzbeere, Purgierdorn, Schyssbeeri, Wegdorn
  • Old Use: medicinal

Buckthorn

Rhamnus cathartica is a deciduous shrub or small tree growing up to 10 m tall, with grey-brown bark and spiny branches. The leaves are elliptic to oval, 2.5–9 cm long and 1.2–3.5 cm broad; they are green, turning yellow in autumn, and are arranged somewhat variably in opposite to subopposite pairs or alternately. The flowers are yellowish-green, with four petals; they are dioecious and insect pollinated. The fruit is a globose black drupe 6–10 mm diameter containing two to four seeds; it is mildly poisonous for people, but readily eaten by birds, which disperse the seeds in their droppings.