• borst
  • lavender
  • dandelion

Recipes starting with C

Cacao
  • Botanical: Theobroma cacao
  • Family: Malvaceae
  • Known as: Cacao, Cocoa, Theobroma cacao, Kakao
  • Old Use: ceremonial, medicinal, culinary

Cacao

Leaves are alternate, entire, unlobed, 10–40 cm (3.9–15.7 in) long and 5–20 cm (2.0–7.9 in) broad.

The flowers are produced in clusters directly on the trunk and older branches; this is known as cauliflory. The flowers are small, 1–2 cm (0.39–0.79 in) diameter, with pink calyx. While many of the world's flowers are pollinated by bees (Hymenoptera) or butterflies/moths (Lepidoptera), cacao flowers are pollinated by tiny flies, Forcipomyia midges in the order Diptera.

Cajeput
  • Botanical: Melaleuca leucadendra
  • Family: Myrtaceae
  • Known as: Cajuput Tree, Cajeput, Silberbaum Myrtenheide, Kajeputbaum, Melaleukaöl, Cajeputbaum
  • Old Use: medicinal use

Cajeput

The tree has a long flexible trunk with irregular ascending branches, covered with a pale thick, lamellated bark it is soft and spongy and from time to time throws off its outer layer in flakes; leaves entire, linear, lanceolate, ash colour, alternate on short foot-stalks; flowers sessile, white, on a long spike.

Calabar bean
  • Botanical: Physostigma venenosum
  • Family: Leguminosae
  • Known as: Ordeal bean, Kalabarbohne, Gottesurteilbohne
  • Old Use: medical

Calabar bean

The plant is a large, herbaceous, climbing perennial, with the stem woody at the base, up to 2 inches (5 cm) in diameter; it has a habit like the scarlet runner, and attains a height of about 50 feet (15 m). The flowers, resting on axillary peduncles, are large, about an inch long, grouped in pendulous, fascicled racemes pale-pink or purplish, and beautifully veined. The seed pods, which contain two or three seeds or beans, are 6 or 7 inches (15 or 18 cm) in length; and the beans are about the size of an ordinary horse bean but much thicker, with a deep chocolate-brown color.

Calamus
  • Botanical: Acorus calamus
  • Family: Acoraceae
  • Known as: Kalmus, Ackermann, Sweet flag, Sweet sedge,
  • Old Use: culinary; medicinal

Calamus

Acorus calamus Linn. is an herbaceous perennial with a rhizome that is long indefinite branched, smooth, pinkish or pale green. Its leaf scars are brown white and spongy and it possess slight slender roots. The leaves are few and distichously alternate whose size was found to be between 0.7 and 1.7 cm wide with average of 1 cm. The sympoidal leaf of Acorus calamus is shorter than that of the vegetative leaves. The flowers are 3 to 8 cm long, cylindrical, greenish brown and contains multitude of rounded spikes covering it. The fruits are found to be small and berry like with few seeds.

Calendula
  • Botanical: Calendula officinalis
  • Family: Asteraceae
  • Known as: Marigold, Ringelblume,
  • Old Use: medical, culinary, industry

Calendula

Calendula officianalis is a short-lived aromatic herbaceous perennial, growing to 80 cm (31 in) tall, with sparsely branched lax or erect stems. The leaves are oblong-lanceolate, 5–17 cm (2–7 in) long, hairy on both sides, and with margins entire or occasionally waved or weakly toothed. The inflorescences are yellow, comprising a thick capitulum or flowerhead 4–7 cm diameter surrounded by two rows of hairy bracts; in the wild plant they have a single ring of ray florets surrounding the central disc florets. The disc florets are tubular and hermaphrodite, and generally of a more intense orange-yellow colour than the female, tridentate, peripheral ray florets. The flowers may appear all year long where conditions are suitable. The fruit is a thorny curved achene.

Camphor
  • Botanical: Cinnamomum camphora
  • Family: Lauraceae
  • Known as: Camphor tree, Camphorwood, camphor laurel, Kampfer, Kampferlorbeer
  • Old Use: culinary; medicinal
  • Aroma: camphorus

Camphor

Cinnamomum camphora is a small, glabrous tree. Leaves alternate and penniverved with stout dormant buds enclosed in large, silky orbicular concave, imbricating caducous scales. Flowers in lax axillary, terminal panicles on the ends of the twigs, creamy white in colour, hermaphroditic, actinomorphic; ovary 1, locular; ovule 1, pendulous or basal; stamens definite, free; anthers opening by valves or slits; embryo minute.

Cannabis
  • Botanical: Cannabis Sativa, Cannabis Indica
  • Family: Cannabaceae
  • Known as: Marihuana, Hemp, Cannabis Sativa, Cannabis sativa, Bangue, Bhang, Canamo, Canamo Indio, Chanvre, Ganeb, Ganja, Han Ma, Hanf, Hemp fruit, Hemp Protein, Hennep, Hint Keneviri, Hops, Huang Ma, Huo Ma, Indian Hemp, Kenevir, Kif, Ma Fen, Ma Jen Chiu
  • Old Use: culinary; medicinal

Cannabis

Cannabis is an annual, dioecious, flowering herb. The leaves are palmately compound or digitate, with serrate leaflets. The first pair of leaves usually have a single leaflet, the number gradually increasing up to a maximum of about thirteen leaflets per leaf (usually seven or nine), depending on variety and growing conditions. At the top of a flowering plant, this number again diminishes to a single leaflet per leaf. The lower leaf pairs usually occur in an opposite leaf arrangement and the upper leaf pairs in an alternate arrangement on the main stem of a mature plant.

Caraway
  • Botanical: Carum carvi
  • Family: Apiaceae
  • Known as: Caraway, Carum carvi, meridian fennel, Persian cumin, Kümmel, Kuemmel,
  • Old Use: culinary; medicinal
  • Aroma: sharp, spicy

Caraway

It is a biennial, with smooth, furrowed stems growing 1 1/2 to 2 feet high, hearing finely cut leaves, and umbels of white flowers which blossom in June. The fruitswhich are popularly and incorrectly called seeds - and which correspond in general character to those of the other plants of this large family, are laterally compressed, somewhat horny and translucent, slightly curved, and marked with five distinct, pale ridges.

Cardamom
  • Botanical: Elettaria cardamomum
  • Family: Zingiberaceae
  • Known as: Elettaria cardamomum, Grüne Kardamom
  • Old Use: medicinal; culinary
  • Aroma: balsamic, spicy, sweet

Cardamom

The large perennial herb. yielding Cardamom seeds is known in its own country as 'Elattari' or 'Ilachi,' while 'Cardamomum' was the name by which some Indian spice was known in classical times.

Cascarilla
  • Botanical: Croton eluteria
  • Family: Euphorbiaceae
  • Known as: Croton eluteria bennet, Kaskarillabaum, cascarilla, cascarilha, amber kabug, sweet bark, sweet wood bark
  • Old Use: medical

Cascarilla

It grows to be a small tree or tall shrub (about 20 feet), rarely reaching 20 feet in height.

Leaves scanty, alternate, ovate-lanceolate, averaging 2 inches long, closely scaled below, giving a metallic silver-bronze appearance, with scattered white scales above.

The flowers are small, with white petals, and very fragrant, appearing in March and April.

The scented bark is fissured, pale yellowish brown, and may be covered in lichen.

Cashew
  • Botanical: Anacardium occidentale
  • Family: Anacardiaceae
  • Known as: Cajueiro, cashew, cashu, casho, acajuiba, caju, acajou, acaju, acajaiba, alcayoiba, anacarde, anacardier, anacardo, cacajuil, cajou, gajus, jocote maranon, maranon, merey, noix d’acajou, pomme cajou, pomme, jambu, jambu golok, jambu mete, jambu monyet
  • Old Use: medicinal; culinary
  • Aroma: sweet

Cashew

The tree is large and evergreen, growing to 10-12m (~32 ft) tall, with a short, often irregularly shaped trunk. The leaves are spirally arranged, leathery textured, elliptic to obovate, 4 to 22 cm long and 2 to 15 cm broad, with smooth margins. The flowers are produced in a panicle or corymb up to 26 cm long, each flower is small, pale green at first, then turning reddish, with five slender, acute petals 7 to 15 mm long.

Cassia
  • Botanical: Cinnamomum aromaticum
  • Family: Lauraceae
  • Known as: Cassia, Chinese cinnamon, Zimtkassie,
  • Old Use: culinary; medicinal
  • Aroma: oriental, spicy, sweet

Cassia

The cultivated trees are kept as coppices, and numerous shoots, which are not allowed to rise higher than 10 feet, spring from the roots. Their appearance when the flame-coloured leaves and delicate blossoms first appear is very beautiful. The fruit is about the size of a small olive. The leaves are evergreen, ovaloblong blades from 5 to 9 inches long. The trees are at their greatest perfection at the age of ten to twelve years, but they continue to spread and send up new shoots. The bark may be easily distinguished from that of cinnamon, as it is thicker, coarser, darker, and duller, the flavour being more pungent, less sweet and delicate, and slightly bitter.

Castor
  • Botanical: Ricinus communis
  • Family: Euphorbiaceae
  • Known as: Castor Oil Plant, Ricinus communis, Castorbean,
  • Old Use: culinary; medicinal;

Castor

It is a fast-growing, suckering perennial shrub that can reach the size of a small tree (around 12 metres or 39 feet), but it is not cold hardy.

The glossy leaves are 15–45 centimetres (5.9–17.7 in) long, long-stalked, alternate and palmate with 5–12 deep lobes with coarsely toothed segments. In some varieties they start off dark reddish purple or bronze when young, gradually changing to a dark green, sometimes with a reddish tinge, as they mature.

Cayenne Pepper
  • Botanical: Capsicum annuum
  • Family: Solanaceae
  • Known as: Capsicum frutescens, Capsicum chinense, Paprika, Peperoni, Pepperoni, Pfefferoni, Pfefferschoten, Chilli, Chillie, Chilie, Chile, Cayennepfeffer
  • Old Use: culinary, medicinal use

Cayenne Pepper

It is a shrubby perennial plant 2 to 6 feet high. Branches angular, usually enlarged and slightly purple at the nodes; petioles medium; peduncles slender, often in pairs, and longer than the fruit; calyx cup-shaped, clasping base of fruit which is red, ovate, and long; seeds small and flat, from ten to twenty-nine. The cuticle of the pericarp is uniformly striated and in this particular is distinct from other species.

 

Celandine
  • Botanical: Chelidonium majus
  • Family: Papaveraceae
  • Known as: Chelidonium, tetterwort, Schöllkraut
  • Old Use: bloodroot, wart weed

Celandine

Greater celandine is a perennial herb with an erect habit, and reaches 30 to 120 cm high. The leaves are pinnate with lobed and wavy-edged margins, 30 cm long. When injured, the plant exudes a yellow to orange latex. The flowers consist of four yellow petals, each about 1 cm long, with two sepals. A double-flowered variety occurs naturally. The flowers appear from late spring to summer in umbelliform cymes of about 4 flowers. The seeds are small and black, borne in a long capsule. Each has an elaiosome, which attracts ants to disperse the seeds (myrmecochory). It is considered an aggressive invasive plant in natural areas (both woods and fields). Control is obtained mainly via pulling or spraying the plant before seed dispersal.