• borst
  • lavender
  • dandelion

Recipes starting with S

Spearmint
  • Botanical: Mentha spicata
  • Family: Lamiaceae
  • Known as: Spear Mint, Langblättrige Minze, Rossminze, Ross-Minze, Ährige Minze, Speer-Minze
  • Old Use: culinary; medicinal
  • Aroma: fresh, minty

Spearmint

It is a herbaceous rhizomatous perennial plant growing 30–100 cm tall, with variably hairless to hairy stems and foliage, and a wide-spreading fleshy underground rhizome. The leaves are 5–9 cm long and 1.5–3 cm broad, with a serrated margin. The stem is square-shaped, a trademark of the mint family of herbs. Spearmint produces flowers in slender spikes, each flower pink or white, 2.5–3 mm long and broad.

Spruce
  • Botanical: Picea abies
  • Family: Pinaceae
  • Known as: Norway Spruce, Spruce, Picea abies, Feichten, Gräne, Krestling, Pechtanne, Rothtanne, Rottanne, Schwarztanne
  • Old Use: culinary; medicinal
  • Aroma: balsamic, smoky, sweet, woody

Spruce

It is a large, fast-growing evergreen coniferous tree growing 35–55 m (115–180 ft) tall and with a trunk diameter of 1 to 1.5 m. It can grow fast when young, up to 1 m (3 ft) per year for the first 25 years under good conditions, but becomes slower once over 20 m (66 ft) tall. The shoots are orange-brown and glabrous (hairless). The leaves are needle-like, 12–24 mm long, quadrangular in cross-section (not flattened), and dark green on all four sides with inconspicuous stomatal lines.

Strophanthus
  • Botanical: Strophanthus hispidus
  • Family: Apocynaceae
  • Known as: Strophanthus,
  • Old Use: medical
  • Aroma: spicy

Strophanthus

The name Strophanthus is derived from the Greek strophos (a twisted cord or rope) and anthos (a flower), thus expressing the chief peculiarity of its appearance, the limb of the corolla being divided into five, long, tail-like segments. The official description of the seeds is 'lance-ovoid, flattened and obtusely-edged; from 7 to 20 mm. in length, about 4 mm. in breadth, and about 2 mm. in thickness; externally of a light fawn colour with a distinct greenish tinge, silky lustrous form, a dense coating of flat-lying hairs (S. Kombé) or light to dark brown, nearly smooth, and sparingly hairy (S. hispidus), bearing on one side a ridge running from about the centre to the summit; fracture short and somewhat soft, the fractured surface whitish and oily; odour heavy when the seeds are crushed and moistened; taste very bitter.

Strychnine tree
  • Botanical: Strychnos nux-vomica
  • Family: Loganiaceae
  • Known as: nux vomica, poison nut, semen strychnos, quaker buttons, Gewöhnliche Brechnuss, Brechnuss, Krähenaugenbaum, Strychninbaum, Brechnussbaum
  • Old Use: medical

Strychnine tree

S. nux-vomica is a medium-sized tree with a short thick trunk. The wood is dense, hard white, and close-grained. The branches are irregular and are covered with a smooth ashen bark. The young shoots are a deep green colour with a shiny coat. The leaves have an opposite decussate arrangement, short stalked, are oval shaped, also have a shiny coat and are smooth on both sides. The leaves are about 4 inches (10 cm) long and 3 inches (7.6 cm) wide. The flowers are small with a pale green colour with a funnel shape. They bloom in the cold season and have a foul smell. The fruit are about the size of a large apple with a smooth and hard shell which when ripened is a mild shade orange colour. The flesh of the fruit is soft and white with a jelly-like pulp containing five seeds covered with a soft woolly substance. The seeds are removed from the fruit when ripe. They are then cleaned, dried and sorted.

The seeds have the shape of a flattened disk completely covered with hairs radiating from the center of the sides. This gives the seeds a very characteristic sheen. The seeds are very hard, with a dark grey horny endosperm where the small embryo is housed that gives off no odour but possesses a very bitter taste.

Styrax
  • Botanical: Styrax benzoin
  • Family: Styracaceae
  • Known as: styrax, Benzoin, gum benjamin tree, loban, kemenyan, onycha, Siam benzoin, sumatra benzoin tree, Sumatra benzoin, Styrax tonkinensis, Benzoe, Storaxbaum
  • Old Use: used in perfumes, certain types of incense, and medicines.

Styrax

Large tropical tree up to 50 to 70 feet high, with pale green citrus-like leaves. It releases a balsamic resin when the trunk is cut. The resin hardens on exposure to air.

Sugarcane
  • Botanical: Saccharum officinarum
  • Family: Poaceae
  • Known as: Zuckerrohr, cane beetle, cane grub
  • Old Use: medical, culinary, industry
  • Aroma: sweet

Sugarcane

S. officinarum, a perennial plant, grows in clumps consisting of a number of strong unbranched stems. A network of rhizomes forms under the soil which sends up secondary shoots near the parent plant. The stems vary in colour, being green, pinkish, or purple and can reach 5 m (16 ft) in height. They are jointed, nodes being present at the bases of the alternate leaves. The internodes contain a fibrous white pith immersed in sugary sap. The elongated, linear, green leaves have thick midribs and saw-toothed edges and grow to a length of about 30 to 60 cm (12 to 24 in) and width of 5 cm (2.0 in). The terminal inflorescence is a panicle up to 60 cm (24 in) long, a pinkish plume that is broadest at the base and tapering towards the top. The spikelets are borne on side branches and are about 3 mm (0.12 in) long and are concealed in tufts of long, silky hair. The fruits are dry and each one contains a single seed. Sugarcane harvest typically occurs before the plants flower, as the flowering process causes a reduction in sugar content.

Suicide tree
  • Botanical: Cerbera odollam
  • Family: Apocynaceae
  • Known as: Pong-pong, Othalanga, Zerberusbaum, Selbstmordbaum, See-Mango

Suicide tree

Cerbera odollam is a large shrub or small tree reaching approximately 10 meters in height. Like its relative Cerbera manghas, it has alternate glossy shiny green leaves and fragrant white flowers, however the flowers have a yellow throat instead of red.

The fruits are green when young and turn bright red at maturity. The dried fruits (drupes) are 5-10 cm in length. When they fall from the branches, the papery, outer layer falls off exposing a thick fibrous husk. Because of this fibrous layer, the fruits are very light and buoyant, being easily dispersed by ocean currents. The fruits separate into two halves, each containing one very poisonous seed.

Sweet Iris
  • Botanical: Iris pallida
  • Family: Iridaceae
  • Known as: Dalmatian iris, Bleiche Schwertlilie, Dalmatinische Iris
  • Old Use: medical
  • Aroma: floral

Sweet Iris

This iris prefers rocky places in the mediterranean and submediterranean zone and reaches sometimes montane regions at its southern range in Montenegro. It grows to a stem height of 50 to 80 centimeters. The leaves are bluish-green in color, and sword-shaped, 40 to 50 centimeters in length, and 2.5 to 3 centimeters in width. The inflorescence, produced in May/June, is fan-shaped and contains two or three flowers which are usually pale purplish to whitish.