• borst
  • lavender
  • dandelion

Euphorbiaceae

Cascarilla
  • Botanical: Croton eluteria
  • Family: Euphorbiaceae
  • Known as: Croton eluteria bennet, Kaskarillabaum, cascarilla, cascarilha, amber kabug, sweet bark, sweet wood bark
  • Old Use: medical

Cascarilla

It grows to be a small tree or tall shrub (about 20 feet), rarely reaching 20 feet in height.

Leaves scanty, alternate, ovate-lanceolate, averaging 2 inches long, closely scaled below, giving a metallic silver-bronze appearance, with scattered white scales above.

The flowers are small, with white petals, and very fragrant, appearing in March and April.

The scented bark is fissured, pale yellowish brown, and may be covered in lichen.

Castor
  • Botanical: Ricinus communis
  • Family: Euphorbiaceae
  • Known as: Castor Oil Plant, Ricinus communis, Castorbean,
  • Old Use: culinary; medicinal;

Castor

It is a fast-growing, suckering perennial shrub that can reach the size of a small tree (around 12 metres or 39 feet), but it is not cold hardy.

The glossy leaves are 15–45 centimetres (5.9–17.7 in) long, long-stalked, alternate and palmate with 5–12 deep lobes with coarsely toothed segments. In some varieties they start off dark reddish purple or bronze when young, gradually changing to a dark green, sometimes with a reddish tinge, as they mature.

Kamala
  • Botanical: Mallotus philippensis
  • Family: Euphorbiaceae
  • Known as: Glandulae Rottelerae. Kamcela. Spoonwood. Röttlera tinctoria.
  • Old Use: medical, industry
  • Aroma: fruity

Kamala

It is 20 to 30 feet high, trunk 3 or 4 feet in diameter, branches slender with pale bark, the younger ones covered with dense ferruginous tomentosum; leaves alternate, articulate petioles, 1 to 2 inches long; rusty tomentose, blade 3 to 6 inches long, ovate with two obscure glands at base, entire, coriaceous, upper surface glabrous, veins very prominent on under surface, flowers dioecious. Males three together in the axils of small bracts arranged in longer much-branched axillary branches to the females, both densely covered with ferrugineous tomentosum, flowering November to January. From the surface of the trilobed capsules of the plant, which are about the size of peas, a red mealy powder is obtained; this consists of minute glands and hairs coloured brick or madder red, nearly odourless and tasteless; it is much used by the Hindu silk dyers, who obtain from it by boiling in carbonate of soda, a durable flame colour of great beauty. The capsules are ripe February and March, when the red powder is brushed off and collected for sale; no other preparation is necessary to preserve it.

Purging Croton
  • Botanical: Croton tiglium
  • Family: Euphorbiaceae
  • Known as: Jamaal Gota, Crotonöl
  • Old Use: medical

Purging Croton

A small tree or shrub with a few spreading branches bearing alternate petiolate leaves which are ovate, acuminate, serrate, smooth, dark green on upper surface paler beneath and furnished with two glands at base.

Flowers in erect terminal racemes, scarcely as long as the leaf, the lower female, upper male, straw-coloured petals.

Fruit a smooth capsule of the size of a filbert, three cells, each containing a single seed; these seeds resemble castor beans in size and structure, oblong, rounded at the extremities with two faces; the kernel or endosperm is yellowish brown and abounds in oil.

The oil is obtained by expression from the seeds previously deprived of the shell.

Resin spurge
  • Botanical: Euphorbia resinifera
  • Family: Euphorbiaceae
  • Known as: Euphorbia officinarum

Resin spurge

This leafless, cactus-like plant is a glaucous perennial growing 6 feet or more in height. Its ascending stems are fleshy and 4-angled, each side of the stem about 1 inch in width. The stems have spreading branches whose angles are clothed with divergent, horizontal stipules of a spinescent character taking the place of leaves. These are arranged in pairs and converge at the base into an ovate, somewhat triangular disc; above each pair of spines is a depressed spot indicative of a leaf-bud.

The flowers, which are borne on stalks on the summits of the branches, are 3 in number, 2 of them being borne on pedicles. The branches abound in a milky juice, which exudes and concretes on the surface of the plant when it is wounded.

Yuca
  • Botanical: Manihot utilissima
  • Family: Euphorbiaceae
  • Known as: Manihot esculenta, Tapioca, Cassava, manioc, yuca, balinghoy, mogo, mandioca, kamoteng kahoy, tapioca-root, maniok,
  • Old Use: medical, culinary

Yuca

The cassava root is long and tapered, with a firm, homogeneous flesh encased in a detachable rind, about 1 mm thick, rough and brown on the outside. Commercial varieties can be 5 to 10 cm (2.0 to 3.9 in) in diameter at the top, and around 15 to 30 cm (5.9 to 11.8 in) long. A woody cordon runs along the root's axis. The flesh can be chalk-white or yellowish.