• borst
  • lavender
  • dandelion

Fagaceae

Beech
  • Botanical: Fagus sylvatica
  • Family: Fagaceae
  • Known as: European Beech, Rothbuche, Buche
  • Old Use: culinary; medicinal

Beech

It is a large tree, capable of reaching heights of up to 50 m (160 ft) tall and 3 m (9.8 ft) trunk diameter, though more typically 25–35 m (82–115 ft) tall and up to 1.5 m (4.9 ft) trunk diameter. A 10-year-old sapling will stand about 4 m (13 ft) tall. It has a typical lifespan of 150 to 200 years, though sometimes up to 300 years. 30 years are needed to attain full maturity (as compared to 40 for American beech).

Chestnut
  • Botanical: Castanea sativa
  • Family: Fagaceae
  • Known as: Castanea vesca, Castanea vulgaris, Sweet chestnut, Maroni, Marone, Esskastanie, Essbare Kastanie, Echte Kastanie, Cheste, Cheschtene, Keschte, Edelkastanie

Chestnut

C. sativa attains a height of 20–35 m (66–115 ft) with a trunk often 2 m (7 ft) in diameter. The bark often has a net-shaped (retiform) pattern with deep furrows or fissures running spirally in both directions up the trunk. The oblong-lanceolate, boldly toothed leaves are 16–28 cm (6–11 in) long and 5–9 cm (2–4 in) broad.

Cork Oak
  • Botanical: Quercus suber
  • Family: Fagaceae
  • Known as: Korkeiche, Sorbriero
  • Old Use: medical, culinary, industry
  • Aroma: sweet

Cork Oak

It grows to up to 20 m (66 ft), although it is typically more stunted in its native environment. The leaves are 4 to 7 cm (1.6 to 2.8 in) long, weakly lobed or coarsely toothed, dark green above, paler beneath, with the leaf margins often downcurved. The acorns are 2 to 3 cm (0.79 to 1.18 in) long, in a deep cup fringed with elongated scales.

Oak Durmast
  • Botanical: Quercus petraea
  • Family: Fagaceae
  • Known as: Sessile oak, Cornish oak, Durmast oak
  • Old Use: cooking
  • Aroma: forest

Oak Durmast

The sessile oak is a large deciduous tree up to 20–40 m (66–131 ft) tall, in the white oak section of the genus (Quercus sect. Quercus) and similar to the Pedunculate oak, Q. robur, with which it overlaps extensively in range. The leaves are 7–14 cm (2.8–5.5 in) long and 4–8 cm broad, evenly lobed with five to six lobes on each side, and a 1 cm petiole. The flowers are catkins, produced in the spring. The fruit is an acorn 2–3 cm long and 1–2 cm broad, which matures in about six months.

Oak English
  • Botanical: Quercus robur
  • Family: Fagaceae
  • Known as: English oak, Pedunculate Oak, Stieleiche, Sommereiche, Deutsche Eiche, Traubeneiche, Wintereiche, Eke, Eik, Ferkeleiche, Masteiche, Oachen
  • Old Use: cooking
  • Aroma: forest

Oak English

Quercus robur is a large deciduous tree, with circumference of grand oaks from 4 m (13') to exceptional 12m (40'). Majesty Oak with the circumference of 12,2 m (40') is the thickest tree in Great Britain, but Kaive Oak in Latvia with the circumference of 10,2 m (33,5') is the thickest tree in Northern Europe. Q. robur has lobed and nearly sessile (very short-stalked) leaves 7–14 cm long. Flowering takes place in mid spring, and their fruit, called acorns, ripen by the following autumn.