• borst
  • lavender
  • dandelion

Poaceae

Corn
  • Botanical: Zea mays
  • Family: Poaceae
  • Known as: Maize, Mais,
  • Old Use: culinary
  • Aroma: earthy, oriental

Corn

A monoecious plant. Male flowers in terminal racemes; spikelets, two-flowered glumes nearly equal, herbaceous, terminating in two sharp points; females, axillary in the sheaths of the leaves.

The spikes or ears proceed from the stalls at various distances from the ground, and are closely enveloped in several thin leaves, forming a sheath called the husk; the ears consist of a cylindrical substance, a pith called the cob; on this the seeds are ranged in eight rows, each row having thirty or more seeds.

Couch Grass
  • Botanical: Agropyron repens
  • Family: Poaceae
  • Known as: Elymus repens, twitch, quick grass, quitch grass, dog grass, quackgrass, scutch grass, and witchgrass, Kriech-Quecke, Gemeine Quecke, Gewöhnliche Quecke, einfach Quecke
  • Old Use: medical
  • Aroma: earthy

Couch Grass

Couch grass ( A. repens ) is a weed that is widely distributed throughout the northern hemisphere. The grass grows up to 1.5 m tall with spikes up to 15 cm long containing many flowered spikelets. The leaves alternate with sheaths, the blades are long and narrow, and the veins are parallel. The grass also possesses shiny, pale yellow, hollow rhizomes and longitudinally grooved stems that are 2 to 3 mm thick. Thin roots and short fiber-like cataphylls are present at the unthickened nodes. Couch grass has an almost bland but slightly sweet taste. The rhizomes, roots, and stems are used to formulate the product. 

Rice
  • Botanical: Oryza sativa
  • Family: Poaceae
  • Known as: Reis, Nivara. Dhan. O. montana. O. setegera. O. latifolia. Bras. Paddy.
  • Old Use: culinary, medical
  • Aroma: clean, oriental

Rice

Rice is an annual plant with several jointed culms or stems from 2 to 10 feet long, the lower part floating in water or prostrate, with roots at the nodes, the rest erect. The panicle is terminal and diffuse, bowing when the seed is weighty. It is probably indigenous to China, and certainly to India, where the wild form grows by tanks, ditches and rivers. It was early introduced into East Africa and Syria, and later into America, where it already appears as a native plant. In Europe, rice was brought into the Mediterranean basin from Syria by the Arabs in the Middle Ages, but is now grown largely only in the plain of Lombardy, and a little in Spain. In England it has been cultivated merely as a curiosity, and may be seen in the hothouses of most botanic gardens, treated as a water plant. The Cingalese distinguish 160 kinds, while 50 or 60 are cultivated in India, not including the wild form, from which the grain is collected, though it is never cultivated. Most kinds require irrigation, but some need little water, or can be grown on ordinary, dry ground. Oryza (the classical name of the grain), or the husked seeds, is called Bras by the Malays, and Paddy when it is enclosed in the husk. Carolina and Patna rice are the most esteemed in England and the United States. The grain of the first is round and flat, and boils soft for puddings; the latter has a long and narrow grain that keeps its shape well for curries, etc. The flour procured from the seeds is called Oryzae Farina, or rice flour, commonly known as ground rice. The granules of rice starch are the smallest of all known starch granules.

Sugarcane
  • Botanical: Saccharum officinarum
  • Family: Poaceae
  • Known as: Zuckerrohr, cane beetle, cane grub
  • Old Use: medical, culinary, industry
  • Aroma: sweet

Sugarcane

S. officinarum, a perennial plant, grows in clumps consisting of a number of strong unbranched stems. A network of rhizomes forms under the soil which sends up secondary shoots near the parent plant. The stems vary in colour, being green, pinkish, or purple and can reach 5 m (16 ft) in height. They are jointed, nodes being present at the bases of the alternate leaves. The internodes contain a fibrous white pith immersed in sugary sap. The elongated, linear, green leaves have thick midribs and saw-toothed edges and grow to a length of about 30 to 60 cm (12 to 24 in) and width of 5 cm (2.0 in). The terminal inflorescence is a panicle up to 60 cm (24 in) long, a pinkish plume that is broadest at the base and tapering towards the top. The spikelets are borne on side branches and are about 3 mm (0.12 in) long and are concealed in tufts of long, silky hair. The fruits are dry and each one contains a single seed. Sugarcane harvest typically occurs before the plants flower, as the flowering process causes a reduction in sugar content.

Wheat Common
  • Botanical: Triticum aestivum
  • Family: Poaceae
  • Known as: Common wheat, Wheat, Triticum aestivum, Bread Wheat, Weichweizen, Brotweizen, Weizen
  • Old Use: culinary
  • Aroma: earthy

Wheat Common

An annual, largely hairless grass, producing a spike (flowering and fruiting part) on each of its 1–5 culms (stems). Height is variable, from about 1.2–1.5 m for 1930s cultivars to about 85 cm for most modern cultivars, with a simultaneous strengthening of the culm so as to bear the increased weight (resulting from the increased grain yield) of the spike. This has been achieved by incorporating dwarfing genes, from Japanese cultivar Norin 10, into most modern (post 1960s) varieties.