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Heart & Circulation

African Oil Palm
  • Botanical: Elaeis guineensis Jacq.
  • Family: Arecaceae
  • Known as: Ölpalme, Oil palm, African oil palm, mchikichi, mjenga (Kiswahili), mubira, munazi (Luganda)
  • Old Use: medical, culinary, industry

African Oil Palm

Oil palm tree has an erect trunk reaching a height of 4 to 10 meters. Leaves are numerous, 3 to 4.5 meters long. Petioles are broad, armed on the sides with spinescent, reduced leaves. Leaflets are numerous, linear-lanceolate, nearly 1 meter long, 2 to 4 centimeters wide. Male inflorescence is dense, having numerous, cylindric spikes which are 7 to 12 centimeters long and about 1 centimeter in diameter; the rachises excurrent as a stout awn. Female inflorescence is dense, branched, 20 to 30 centimeters long, the flowers densely disposed. Fruit is borne in large dense masses.

Apple
  • Botanical: Pirus Malus
  • Family: Pomaceae
  • Known as: Wild Apple. Malus communis.
  • Old Use: medical, culinary, industry
  • Aroma: floral, sweet

Apple

Apple trees are typically 4–12 m (13–39 ft) tall at maturity, with a dense, twiggy crown. The leaves are 3–10 cm (1.2–3.9 in) long, alternate, simple, with a serrated margin. The flowers are borne in corymbs, and have five petals, which may be white, pink or red, and are perfect, with usually red stamens that produce copious pollen, and a half-inferior ovary; flowering occurs in the spring after 50–80 growing degree days (varying greatly according to subspecies and cultivar). Apples require cross-pollination between individuals by insects (typically bees, which freely visit the flowers for both nectar and pollen); all are self-sterile, and (with the exception of a few specially developed cultivars) self-pollination is impossible, making pollinating insects essential. Several Malus species, including domestic apples, hybridize freely. They are used as food plants by the larvae of a large number of Lepidoptera species; see list of Lepidoptera that feed on Malus. The fruit is a globose pome, varying in size from 1–4 cm (0.39–1.57 in) diameter in most of the wild species, to 6 cm (2.4 in) in M. sylvestris sieversii, 8 cm (3.1 in) in M. domestica, and even larger in certain cultivated orchard apples. The centre of the fruit contains five carpels arranged star-like, each containing one or two seeds.

Asafoetida
  • Botanical: Ferula assafoetida
  • Family: Apiaceae or Umbelliferae
  • Known as: Ferula scorodosma, Asafetida, Ferula assa-foetida, Asant, Stinkasant, Teufelsdreck

Asafoetida

A coarse umbelliferous plant growing up to 7 feet high, large fleshy root covered with bristly fibres, has been for some time successfully cultivated in Edinburgh Botanical Gardens; stem 6 to 10 feet, numerous stem leaves with wide sheathing petioles; flowers pale greeny yellow, fruit oval, flat thin, foliaceous, reddish brown with pronounced vittae, it has a milky juice and a strong foetid odour; These high plains are arid in winter but are thickly covered in summer with a luxuriant growth of these plants. The great cabbage-like folded heads are eaten raw by the natives. 

Birch Sweet
  • Botanical: Betula lenta
  • Family: Betulaceae
  • Known as: Betula alba, Black Birch, Cherry Birch, Mahogany Birch, Spice Birch, Maibaum, Frühlingsbaum, Besenbaum, Besenbirke, Bork, Bark, Hexenbesen, Hängebirke, Moorbirke, Rauhbirke, Sandbirke, Warzenbirke, Weissbirke
  • Old Use: culinary and medicinal use
  • Aroma: sweet

Birch Sweet

It is a  A medium sized tree with a single straight trunk reaching up to 60 feet tall.

Leaf: Alternate, simple, pinnately-veined, ovate, with an acute tip and cordate base, singly or irregularly doubly, sharply serrate margins, 2 to 4 inches long, petiole is stout and pubescent, dark shiny green above, paler below.

Buckbean
  • Botanical: Menyanthes trifoliata
  • Family: Menyanthaceae
  • Known as: Common bog bean, Bachgräslein, Bachgräsli, Biberklee, Bitterblad, Bitterblatt, Bitterklee, Bocksbohnenblätter, Bohnenblad, Butterklee, Dreeblatt, Dreiblatt, Dreiblättriger Fieberklee, Feverkrut, Fieberklee, Fröschekohl, Gallkraut, Kreuzklee
  • Old Use: once-dreaded scurvy

Buckbean

It is a green, glabrous plant, with creeping rootstock and procumbent stem, varying in length according to situation, covered by the sheaths of the leaves, which are on long, fleshy, striated petioles and three-partite, the leaflets being entire and about 2 inches long and 1 broad. It blossoms from May to July, the flowers being borne on long stalks, 6 to 18 inches high, longer than the leaves and clustered together in a thick short spike, rendering them very conspicuous. The corollas, 3/4 inch across, are outwardly rose-coloured and inwardly white and hairy, with reddish stamens. The Buckbean is one of the prettiest of our wild flowers deserving of cultivation in the garden, where it grows and thrives well, if planted in peat with water constantly round the roots.

Cacao
  • Botanical: Theobroma cacao
  • Family: Malvaceae
  • Known as: Cacao, Cocoa, Theobroma cacao, Kakao
  • Old Use: ceremonial, medicinal, culinary

Cacao

Leaves are alternate, entire, unlobed, 10–40 cm (3.9–15.7 in) long and 5–20 cm (2.0–7.9 in) broad.

The flowers are produced in clusters directly on the trunk and older branches; this is known as cauliflory. The flowers are small, 1–2 cm (0.39–0.79 in) diameter, with pink calyx. While many of the world's flowers are pollinated by bees (Hymenoptera) or butterflies/moths (Lepidoptera), cacao flowers are pollinated by tiny flies, Forcipomyia midges in the order Diptera.

Calabar bean
  • Botanical: Physostigma venenosum
  • Family: Leguminosae
  • Known as: Ordeal bean, Kalabarbohne, Gottesurteilbohne
  • Old Use: medical

Calabar bean

The plant is a large, herbaceous, climbing perennial, with the stem woody at the base, up to 2 inches (5 cm) in diameter; it has a habit like the scarlet runner, and attains a height of about 50 feet (15 m). The flowers, resting on axillary peduncles, are large, about an inch long, grouped in pendulous, fascicled racemes pale-pink or purplish, and beautifully veined. The seed pods, which contain two or three seeds or beans, are 6 or 7 inches (15 or 18 cm) in length; and the beans are about the size of an ordinary horse bean but much thicker, with a deep chocolate-brown color.

Calendula
  • Botanical: Calendula officinalis
  • Family: Asteraceae
  • Known as: Marigold, Ringelblume,
  • Old Use: medical, culinary, industry

Calendula

Calendula officianalis is a short-lived aromatic herbaceous perennial, growing to 80 cm (31 in) tall, with sparsely branched lax or erect stems. The leaves are oblong-lanceolate, 5–17 cm (2–7 in) long, hairy on both sides, and with margins entire or occasionally waved or weakly toothed. The inflorescences are yellow, comprising a thick capitulum or flowerhead 4–7 cm diameter surrounded by two rows of hairy bracts; in the wild plant they have a single ring of ray florets surrounding the central disc florets. The disc florets are tubular and hermaphrodite, and generally of a more intense orange-yellow colour than the female, tridentate, peripheral ray florets. The flowers may appear all year long where conditions are suitable. The fruit is a thorny curved achene.

Cayenne Pepper
  • Botanical: Capsicum annuum
  • Family: Solanaceae
  • Known as: Capsicum frutescens, Capsicum chinense, Paprika, Peperoni, Pepperoni, Pfefferoni, Pfefferschoten, Chilli, Chillie, Chilie, Chile, Cayennepfeffer
  • Old Use: culinary, medicinal use

Cayenne Pepper

It is a shrubby perennial plant 2 to 6 feet high. Branches angular, usually enlarged and slightly purple at the nodes; petioles medium; peduncles slender, often in pairs, and longer than the fruit; calyx cup-shaped, clasping base of fruit which is red, ovate, and long; seeds small and flat, from ten to twenty-nine. The cuticle of the pericarp is uniformly striated and in this particular is distinct from other species.

 

Chamomile Corn
  • Botanical: Anthemis arvensis
  • Family: Asteraceae
  • Known as: Mayweed, Scentless Chamomile, Chamomile, Kamille, Matricaria chamomilla, German chamomile

Chamomile Corn

The whole plant is covered in short hairs. The leaves are finely divided with narrow, parallel-sided segments, pointed at the tips and have a pleasant, chamomile-like scent. The 'flowers', borne singly on stout stalks, are technically compound flower-heads made up of numerous small florets and resemble a Daisy. The central florets are yellow, while around the edge are the ray-florets, which have a single long white petal pointing outwards.

Chamomile Stinking
  • Botanical: Anthemis cotula
  • Family: Asteraceae
  • Known as: Chamomile, Kamille, Matricaria chamomilla, German chamomile

Chamomile Stinking

Anthemis cotula is an annual glandular plant with a harsh taste and an acrid smell. Its height varies from 12 inches (28 centimeters) to 24 inches (56 centimeters).
The leaves of the plant sometimes have very fine and soft hairs on the upper surface, although the plant is mostly hairless. There is no leaf stalk; leaves grow immediately from the stems. The leaves are pinnate in shape, with many extremely thin lobes, and can be around 1 or 2 inches long (2.5 to 5 centimeters).

Cherry Sour
  • Botanical: Prunus cerasus
  • Family: Rosaceae
  • Known as: Cherry, Vogelkirsche, Süsskirsche, Sauerkirsche, Weichselkirsche, Morellen

Cherry Sour

The tree is smaller than the sweet cherry (growing to a height of 4–10 m), has twiggy branches, and its crimson-to-near-black cherries are borne upon shorter stalks.

The leaves near the base of the stem are large and numerous, 6 to 8 inches long and 2 to 2 1/2 inches broad, but become smaller as they ascend the stem, on which they are arranged not opposite to one another, but on alternate sides.

Clover Yellow Sweet
  • Botanical: Melilotus officinalis
  • Family: Fabaceae
  • Known as: Yellow Sweet Clover, Yellow Melilot, Ribbed Melilot, Common Melilot, Bärenklee, Mottenklee, Melilotenklee, Goldklee, Schotenklee, Mottenkraut
  • Old Use: culinary; medicinal

Clover Yellow Sweet

The Meliots are perennial herbs, 2 to 4 feet high, found in dry fields and along roadsides, in waste places and chalky banks, especially along railway banks and near lime kilns. The smooth, erect stems are much branched, the leaves placed on alternate sides of the stems are smooth and trifoliate, the leaflets oval. The plants bear long racemes of small, sweet-scented, yellow or white, papilionaceous flowers in the yellow species, the keel of the flower much shorter than the other parts and containing much honey.

Coca
  • Botanical: Erythroxylum coca
  • Family: Erythroxylaceae
  • Known as: Cuca. Cocaine.

Coca

Small shrubby tree 12 to 18 feet high in the wild state and kept down to about 6 feet when cultivated. Grown from seeds and requires moisture and an equable temperature. Starts yielding in eighteen months and often productive over fifty years. There are two varieties in commerce, the Huanuco Coca, or Erythroxylon Coca, which comes from Bolivia and has leaves of a brownish-green colour, oval, entire and glabrous, with a rather bitter taste, and Peruvian Coca, the leaves of which are much smaller and a pale-green colour.

Cork Oak
  • Botanical: Quercus suber
  • Family: Fagaceae
  • Known as: Korkeiche, Sorbriero
  • Old Use: medical, culinary, industry
  • Aroma: sweet

Cork Oak

It grows to up to 20 m (66 ft), although it is typically more stunted in its native environment. The leaves are 4 to 7 cm (1.6 to 2.8 in) long, weakly lobed or coarsely toothed, dark green above, paler beneath, with the leaf margins often downcurved. The acorns are 2 to 3 cm (0.79 to 1.18 in) long, in a deep cup fringed with elongated scales.