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Infection & Inflammation

 Wax Tree
  • Botanical: Toxicodendron succedaneum
  • Family: Anacardiaceae
  • Known as: Japanese wax tree, Poison ivy, Poison oak, Poison wine.
  • Old Use: medical, culinary, industry

Wax Tree

Rhus Toxicodendron, or Poison oak, is a creeping shrub from 1 to 3 feet high, with long cord-like shoots, emitting strong lateral fibers; the stems are either erect or decumbent. The bark is brownish-gray. The leaves are ternate, on long, semi-cylindrical petioles; the leaflets are broadly oval or rhomboidal, 2 to 6 inches long, 2/3 as wide, petiolate, acuminate, smooth and shining above, slightly downy beneath, especially on the veins; the margin is sometimes entire, and sometimes variously toothed and lobed, in the same plant. The flowers are small, greenish-white, dioecious, and grow in axillary, subsessile, racemose panicles on the sides of the new shoots. Barren flowers have a calyx of 5 erect, acute segments, and a corolla of 5 oblong recurved petals; stamens erect with oblong anthers; in the center is a rudiment of a style. Fertile flowers about half the size of the preceding, with calyx and corolla similar, but more erect. They have 5 small abortive stamens, and a roundish ovary, crowned by a short, erect style bearing 3 small capitate stigmas. The fruit is a roundish, smooth, dry berry, of a pale-green color, approaching to white, and contains a solitary bony seed

Black Pine
  • Botanical: Pinus nigra
  • Family: Pinaceae
  • Known as: Pinus laricio, Schwarzkiefer, Schwarzföhre
  • Old Use: medicine, industry
  • Aroma: earthy

Black Pine

Pinus nigra is a large coniferous evergreen tree, growing to 20–55 metres (66–180 ft) tall at maturity. The bark is grey to yellow-brown, and is widely split by flaking fissures into scaly plates, becoming increasingly fissured with age. The leaves ("needles") are thinner and more flexible in western populations.

The ovulate and pollen cones appear from May to June. The mature seed cones are 5–10 cm (rarely to 11 cm) long, with rounded scales; they ripen from green to pale grey-buff or yellow-buff in September to November, about 18 months after pollination. The seeds are dark grey, 6–8 mm long, with a yellow-buff wing 20–25 mm long; they are wind-dispersed when the cones open from December to April. Sexual maturity is reached at 15–40 years; large seed crops are produced at 2–5 year intervals. P. nigra is moderately fast growing, at about 30–70 centimetres (12–28 in) per year. It usually has a rounded conic form, that becomes irregular with age. The tree can be long-lived, with some trees over 500 years old. It needs full sun to grow well, is intolerant of shade, and is resistant to snow and ice damage.

Black Poplar
  • Botanical: Populus nigra
  • Family: Salicaceae
  • Known as: Schwarz Pappel, Saarbaum
  • Old Use: medical, culinary, industry

Black Poplar

It is a medium-sized to large deciduous tree, reaching 20–30 m (rarely 40 m) tall, with a trunk up to 1.5 m diameter, though some old individuals have grown much bigger (more than 3 meters DBH for several trees in France). The leaves are diamond-shaped to triangular, 5–8 cm long and 6–8 cm broad, green on both surfaces.[2] The species is dioecious (male and female flowers on different plants), with flowers in catkins and pollination by wind. The black poplar grows in low-lying areas of moist ground.

Cascarilla
  • Botanical: Croton eluteria
  • Family: Euphorbiaceae
  • Known as: Croton eluteria bennet, Kaskarillabaum, cascarilla, cascarilha, amber kabug, sweet bark, sweet wood bark
  • Old Use: medical

Cascarilla

It grows to be a small tree or tall shrub (about 20 feet), rarely reaching 20 feet in height.

Leaves scanty, alternate, ovate-lanceolate, averaging 2 inches long, closely scaled below, giving a metallic silver-bronze appearance, with scattered white scales above.

The flowers are small, with white petals, and very fragrant, appearing in March and April.

The scented bark is fissured, pale yellowish brown, and may be covered in lichen.

Chamomile Corn
  • Botanical: Anthemis arvensis
  • Family: Asteraceae
  • Known as: Mayweed, Scentless Chamomile, Chamomile, Kamille, Matricaria chamomilla, German chamomile

Chamomile Corn

The whole plant is covered in short hairs. The leaves are finely divided with narrow, parallel-sided segments, pointed at the tips and have a pleasant, chamomile-like scent. The 'flowers', borne singly on stout stalks, are technically compound flower-heads made up of numerous small florets and resemble a Daisy. The central florets are yellow, while around the edge are the ray-florets, which have a single long white petal pointing outwards.

Chamomile Stinking
  • Botanical: Anthemis cotula
  • Family: Asteraceae
  • Known as: Chamomile, Kamille, Matricaria chamomilla, German chamomile

Chamomile Stinking

Anthemis cotula is an annual glandular plant with a harsh taste and an acrid smell. Its height varies from 12 inches (28 centimeters) to 24 inches (56 centimeters).
The leaves of the plant sometimes have very fine and soft hairs on the upper surface, although the plant is mostly hairless. There is no leaf stalk; leaves grow immediately from the stems. The leaves are pinnate in shape, with many extremely thin lobes, and can be around 1 or 2 inches long (2.5 to 5 centimeters).

Cherry Sour
  • Botanical: Prunus cerasus
  • Family: Rosaceae
  • Known as: Cherry, Vogelkirsche, Süsskirsche, Sauerkirsche, Weichselkirsche, Morellen

Cherry Sour

The tree is smaller than the sweet cherry (growing to a height of 4–10 m), has twiggy branches, and its crimson-to-near-black cherries are borne upon shorter stalks.

The leaves near the base of the stem are large and numerous, 6 to 8 inches long and 2 to 2 1/2 inches broad, but become smaller as they ascend the stem, on which they are arranged not opposite to one another, but on alternate sides.

Cumin
  • Botanical: Cuminum cyminum
  • Family: Apiaceae
  • Known as: Cumin Acre, Sweet Cumin, Anise Acre.
  • Old Use: culinary; medicinal
  • Aroma: balsamic, spicy

Cumin

Its stem is slender and branched, rarely exceeding 1 foot in height and somewhat angular. The leaves are divided into long, narrow segments like Fennel, but much smaller and are of a deep green colour, generally turned back at the ends. The upper leaves are nearly stalkless, but the lower ones have longer leaf-stalks.

Dipterocarpus
  • Botanical: Dipterocarpus retusus
  • Family: Dipterocarpaceae
  • Known as: Zweiflügelfruchtbäume, Zweiflügelnüsse, Flügelfruchtbäume
  • Old Use: medical, manufacturing

Dipterocarpus

he tree, some 20-30m tall, is found in Cambodia in dense forests of the plains, common on hillsides and along rivers and in forests between 800m and 1500m altitude

Elecampane
  • Botanical: Inula helenium
  • Family: Asteraceae or Compositae
  • Known as: Elecampane, Horse heal, Marchalan, Echter Alant, Scabwort. Elf Dock. Wild Sunflower. Horseheal. Velvet Dock.
  • Old Use: medical, culinary, dye

Elecampane

It is a striking and handsome plant. The erect stem grows from 4 to 5 feet high, is very stout and deeply furrowed, and near the top, branched. The whole plant is downy. It produces a radical rosette of enormous, ovate, pointed leaves, from 1 to 1 1/2 feet long and 4 inches broad in the middle velvety beneath, with toothed margins an borne on long foot-stalks; in general appearance the leaves are not unlike those of Mullein. Those on the stem become shorter andrelatively broader and are stem-clasping. The plant is in bloom from June to August. The flowers are bright yellow, in very large, terminal heads, 3 to 4 inches in diameter, on long stalks, resembling a double sunflower. The broad bracts of the leafy involucre under the head are velvety. After the flowers have fallen, these involucral scales spread horizontally, and the removal of the fruit shows the beautifully regular arrangement of the little pits on the receptacle, which form a pattern like the engine-turning of a watch. The fruit is quadrangular and crowned by a ring of pale-reddish hairs - the pappus. The plant springs from a perennial rootstock, which is large and succulent, spindleshaped and branching, brown and aromatic, with large, fleshy roots.

Gambier
  • Botanical: Uncaria gambir
  • Family: Rubiaceae
  • Known as: cutch, black cutch, cachou, cashoo, khoyer, terra Japonica, or Japan earth, and also katha in Hindi, kaath in Marathi, khoyer in Assamese and Bengali, and kachu in Malay
  • Old Use: medicine, industry

Gambier

Woody lianas; climbing by hooks formed from reduced, modified branches. Stipules entire or bifid. Inflorescence a compact head, terminal, at the ends of plagiotropic branches and their very reduced branches. Corolla lobes without appendages. Seeds with a long wing at each end, the lower wing deeply bifid.

Goldenseal
  • Botanical: Hydrastis canadensis
  • Family: Ranunculaceae
  • Known as: orangeroot, yellow puccoon, Kanadische Orangenwurzel, Goldsiegelwurzel, Kanadische Gelbwurz
  • Old Use: medical; insustry

Goldenseal

It has a thick, yellow knotted rootstock. The stem is purplish and hairy above ground and yellow below ground where it connects to the yellow rhizome. The plant bears two palmate, hairy leaves with 5–7 double-toothed lobes and single, small, inconspicuous flowers with greenish white stamens in the late spring. It bears a single berry like a large raspberry with 10–30 seeds in the summer.

Henbane Black
  • Botanical: Hyoscyamus niger
  • Family: Solanaceae
  • Known as: Common Henbane. Hyoscyamus. Hog's-bean. Jupiter's-bean. Symphonica. Cassilata. Cassilago. Deus Caballinus. (Anglo-Saxon) Henbell. (French) Jusquiame.
  • Old Use: medical

Henbane Black

The annual and biennial form spring indifferently from the same crop of seed, the former growing during summer to a height of from 1 to 2 feet, and flowering and perfecting seed, the latter producing the first season only a tuft of radical leaves, which disappear in winter, leaving underground a thick, fleshy root, from the crown of which arises in spring a branched, flowering stem, usually much taller and more vigorous than the flowering stems of the annual plants. The annual form is apparently produced by the weaker and later developed seeds formed in the fruit at the ends of the shoots; it is considered to be less active than the typical species and differs in being of dwarfed growth and having rather paler flowers. The British drug of commerce consists of dense flowering shoots only, and of larger size.

Hogs Fennel
  • Botanical: Peucedanum officinale
  • Family: Apiaceae or Umbelliferae
  • Known as: Dorema ammoniacum, Hog's Fennel, Sulphurweed, Hoar Strange, Hoar Strong, Brimstonewort, Sulphurwort, Echter Haarstrang, Arznei-Haarstrang
  • Old Use: medical

Hogs Fennel

It grows to a height of 3 or 4 feet, and is remarkable for its large umbels of yellow flowers, which are in bloom from July to September. Its leaves are cut into long narrow segments, hence perhaps its popular name of Hog's Fennel. The thick root has a strong odour of sulphur - hence one of the other popular names of the plant, Sulphurwort, and when wounded in the spring, yields a considerable quantity of a yellowish-green juice, which dries into a gummy resin and retains the strong scent of the root.

Hollyhock
  • Botanical: Althaea rosea
  • Family: Malvaceae
  • Known as: Common Hollyhock, Bauerneibisch, Baummalve, Gartenmalve, Herbstrose, Pappelrose, Roseneibisch, Schwarze Malve, Stockmalve, Winterrose
  • Old Use: medicinal use

Hollyhock

It is a tall, upright perennial has single flowers of various colors that grow along a spike. It blooms in early summer and midsummer.

A. rosea is a robust biennial or short-lived perennial to 2m or more, with shallowly lobed, rounded leaves and long erect racemes of open funnel-shaped flowers to 10cm across, which may be pink, purple, red, white or yellow