• borst
  • lavender
  • dandelion

Infection & Inflammation

Lesser Galangal
  • Botanical: Alpinia officinarum
  • Family: Zingaberaceae or Scilaminae
  • Known as: Languas officinarum, Echter Galgant, Galgantwurzel, Kleiner Galgant, Galgant, Siam Galgant
  • Old Use: medical

Lesser Galangal

This herbaceous plant can grow up to ten feet in height, though three to five feet is more common. The leaves are lanceolate (long and thin), and the flowers are white with streaks of red, growing from a spike at the top. The plant's rhizomes, the part known as galangal, are thin and tough, and they are the principal reason the plant is cultivated. They have orange flesh with a brown coating, and have an aromatic odor and a pungent flavor. These are smaller than greater galangal.

Liquorice
  • Botanical: Glycyrrhiza glabra
  • Family: Fabaceae
  • Known as: Licorice, Lakritze, Süßholz
  • Old Use: medical, culinary, industry
  • Aroma: sweet

Liquorice

It is a herbaceous perennial, growing to 1 m in height, with pinnate leaves about 7–15 cm (3–6 in) long, with 9–17 leaflets. The flowers are 0.8–1.2 cm (1/3 to 1/2 in) long, purple to pale whitish blue, produced in a loose inflorescence. The fruit is an oblong pod, 2–3 cm (1 in) long, containing several seeds. The roots are stoloniferous.

Olive
  • Botanical: Olea europaea
  • Family: Oleaceae
  • Known as: Olivenbaum, Olive
  • Old Use: medical, culinary, industry
  • Aroma: exotic, fruity

Olive

This much-branched evergreen tree varies in size from 2 to 15 m high. The leaves have an opposite, decussate arrangement, and are entire, 3 to 7 cm long and 0.8 to 2.5 cm wide; the apex is acute with a small hook or point, and the base is attenuate to cuneate. Leaf margins are entire and recurved, the upper surface is grey-green and glossy, and the lower surface has a dense covering of silvery, golden or brown scales. Domatia are absent; venation is obvious on the upper surface and obscure on the lower surface; the petiole is up to 10 mm long. Fruit are borne in panicles or racmes 50 to 60mm long. The calyx is four-lobed, about 1mm long. The corolla is greenish-white or cream; the tube is 1 to 2mm long; lobes are about 3mm long and reflexed at the anthesis. The two stamens are fused near the top of the corolla tube, with bilobed stigma. The globose to ellipsoid fruit is a drupe, 6mm in diameter and 15 to 25 mm long; it is fleshy, glaucous to a dull shine when ripe, and purple-black. The tree usually flowers in spring. The wood is much-prized and durable, with a strong smell similar to bay rum, and is used for fine furniture and turnery.

Orange
  • Botanical: Citrus aurantium
  • Family: Rutaceae
  • Known as: Orange, Citrus aurantium, Apfelsine
  • Old Use: culinary; medicinal
  • Aroma: citrus, fruity, sweet

Orange

It is a small tree with a smooth, greyishbrown bark and branches that spread into a fairly regular hemisphere. The oval, alternate, evergreen leaves, 3 to 4 inches long, have sometimes a spine in the axil. They are glossy, dark green on the upper side, paler beneath. The calyx is cup-shaped and the thick, fleshy petals, five in number, are intensely white, and curl back.

Papaya
  • Botanical: Carica papaya
  • Family: Caricaceae
  • Known as: Melonenbaum, Papaw, Pawpaw
  • Old Use: cooking aid and traditional medicine

Papaya

The papaya is a large, tree-like plant, with a single stem growing from 5 to 10 m (16 to 33 ft) tall, with spirally arranged leaves confined to the top of the trunk. The lower trunk is conspicuously scarred where leaves and fruit were borne. The leaves are large, 50–70 cm (20–28 in) in diameter, deeply palmately lobed, with seven lobes. Unusually for such large plants, the trees are dioecious.

Parsley
  • Botanical: Petroselinum crispum
  • Family: Apiaceae
  • Known as: Petroselinum hortense, Bittersilche, Bockskraut, Geilwurz, Grönte, Kräutel, Peterle, Peterling, Silk, Stehsalat
  • Old Use: culinary and medicinal use
  • Aroma: clean

Parsley

Parsley is a bright green, biennial, plant in temperate climates, or an annual herb in subtropical and tropical areas.

Where it grows as a biennial, in the first year, it forms a rosette of tripinnate leaves 10–25 cm long with numerous 1–3 cm leaflets, and a taproot used as a food store over the winter. In the second year, it grows a flowering stem to 75 cm tall with sparser leaves and flat-topped 3–10 cm diameter umbels with numerous 2 mm diameter yellow to yellowish-green flowers.

Pepper Black
  • Botanical: Piper nigrum
  • Family: Piperaceae
  • Known as: Black pepper, Pfeffer
  • Old Use: cooking
  • Aroma: sharp, spicy

Pepper Black

Pepper plants are climbers which grow to a height or length of 10 m or more. When its main stem is established, it grows lots of side shoots to create a bushy column.

The plants form short roots, called adventitious roots, which connect to surrounding supports.

Although black pepper is cultivated in many tropical regions, it is native to Kerala State in India where it still occurs wild in the mountains.

Quince
  • Botanical: Cydonia oblonga
  • Family: Rosaceae
  • Known as: Quitte
  • Old Use: C. vulgaris. Pyrus cydonia.
  • Aroma: balsamic, clean, fruity

Quince

The tree grows 5 to 8 metres (16 and a half feet to 26 feet) high and 4 to 6 metres (13 feet to 19 and a half feet) wide. The fruit is 7 to 12 centimetres (3 to 5 inches) long and 6 to 9 centimetres (2 to 3 and a half inches) across.

The immature fruit is green with dense grey-white pubescence, most of which rubs off before maturity in late autumn when the fruit changes colour to yellow with hard, strongly perfumed flesh. The leaves are alternately arranged, simple, 6–11 cm (2–4 in) long, with an entire margin and densely pubescent with fine white hairs. The flowers, produced in spring after the leaves, are white or pink, 5 cm (2 in) across, with five petals.

Rose Cabbage
  • Botanical: Rosa centifolia
  • Family: Rosaceae
  • Known as: Rosa gallica, Centifolie, Bischofsrose, Fleischrose, Gartenrose, hundertblättrige Rose, Jungfernrose, Kaiserrose, Knopfrose, Moosrose, Pomponrose, Trianonrose, Vielblättrige Rose
  • Old Use: culinary

Rose Cabbage

Rose plants are usually shrubby, in appearance with long drooping canes and grayish green leaves. The flowers are round and globular, with thin overlapping petals that are highly scented. The shrub is erect, with a height of 3 to 6 feet. The branches are closely covered with nearly straight prickles. The shoots of the plant are also erect. The leaves are unequally pinnate and there are 5 to 7 leaflets, which are oblong or ovate. The flowers of rose plant, which account for the petals, are large and pinkish or red in color. The flowers vary in hues, form and size. There are 100 documented varieties of flowers from this plant.

Saffron
  • Botanical: Crocus sativus
  • Family: Iridaceae
  • Known as: Safran, Saffron crocus,
  • Old Use: meidicinal use
  • Aroma: spicy

Saffron

The domesticated saffron crocus, Crocus sativus, is an autumn-flowering perennial plant unknown in the wild. Its progenitors are possibly the eastern Mediterranean autumn-flowering Crocus cartwrightianus, which is also known as "wild saffron" and originated in Greece. The saffron crocus likely resulted when C. cartwrightianus was subjected to extensive artificial selection by growers seeking longer stigmas. C. thomasii and C. pallasii are other possible sources.

Sandalwood
  • Botanical: Santalum album
  • Family: Santalaceae
  • Known as: Santalum album, Indian sandalwood
  • Old Use: medicinal anc culinary use
  • Aroma: exotic, floral, spicy, sweet

Sandalwood

Sandalwood is derived from an Indian tree. Its fragrance is both heavy and earthy, but also the other lovely and sweet, a total of very exotic. In the sandalwood fragrance lamp spreads a warm, friendly indoor environment, releases the tension and makes the senses. Applied externally as a component of sandalwood creams for dry skin and helps relieve eczema.

Sugarcane
  • Botanical: Saccharum officinarum
  • Family: Poaceae
  • Known as: Zuckerrohr, cane beetle, cane grub
  • Old Use: medical, culinary, industry
  • Aroma: sweet

Sugarcane

S. officinarum, a perennial plant, grows in clumps consisting of a number of strong unbranched stems. A network of rhizomes forms under the soil which sends up secondary shoots near the parent plant. The stems vary in colour, being green, pinkish, or purple and can reach 5 m (16 ft) in height. They are jointed, nodes being present at the bases of the alternate leaves. The internodes contain a fibrous white pith immersed in sugary sap. The elongated, linear, green leaves have thick midribs and saw-toothed edges and grow to a length of about 30 to 60 cm (12 to 24 in) and width of 5 cm (2.0 in). The terminal inflorescence is a panicle up to 60 cm (24 in) long, a pinkish plume that is broadest at the base and tapering towards the top. The spikelets are borne on side branches and are about 3 mm (0.12 in) long and are concealed in tufts of long, silky hair. The fruits are dry and each one contains a single seed. Sugarcane harvest typically occurs before the plants flower, as the flowering process causes a reduction in sugar content.

Sweet Iris
  • Botanical: Iris pallida
  • Family: Iridaceae
  • Known as: Dalmatian iris, Bleiche Schwertlilie, Dalmatinische Iris
  • Old Use: medical
  • Aroma: floral

Sweet Iris

This iris prefers rocky places in the mediterranean and submediterranean zone and reaches sometimes montane regions at its southern range in Montenegro. It grows to a stem height of 50 to 80 centimeters. The leaves are bluish-green in color, and sword-shaped, 40 to 50 centimeters in length, and 2.5 to 3 centimeters in width. The inflorescence, produced in May/June, is fan-shaped and contains two or three flowers which are usually pale purplish to whitish.

Vijayasar
  • Botanical: Pterocarpus marsupium
  • Family: Fabaceae
  • Known as: Malabar Kino, Indian Kino Tree, Benga, Bijiayasal, Piasal, Venkai
  • Old Use: medical, industry
  • Aroma: sharp

Vijayasar

It is of moderate size to large tree. The height ranges from 15 to 30 meters. The stem is stout and crooked with widely spreading branches. The bark is thick and dark brown to grey in colour. Leaves are compound and imparipinnate. Leaflets are 5-7, coriaceous, oblong, obtuse, emarginated or even bilobed at the apex and glabrous on both surfaces. The petioles are round, smooth and waved from leaflet to leaflet, 5 or 6 inches long and there are no stipules. Panicles are terminal and very large; ramifications are bifarious, like the leaves. Peduncles and pedicals are round and a little downy. Bracts are small, caduceus, solitary below each division and subdivision of the panicle. The flowers are very numerous, white, with a small tinge of yellow. Vexillum is with a long, slender claw, very broad; sides reflexed, waved, curled and veined; keel is two pettled, adhering slightly for a little way near the middle, waved, etc., same as the vexillum. Stamens are 10, united near the base, but soon dividing into two parcels of 5 each; anthers are globose and 2-lobed. Ovary is oblong, pedicelled, hairy, generally 2-celled; cells are transverse and 1­seeded. Style is ascending. The legume, which is borne on a long petiole, is three-fourths orbicular, the upper remainder, which extends from the pedicel to the remainder of the style, is straight, the whole surrounded with a waved, veiny, downy, membraneous wing, swelled, rugose, woody in the center, where the seed is lodged and not opening; generally one but sometimes 2-celled. Seeds are single and reniform