• borst
  • lavender
  • dandelion

Pinaceae

Black Pine
  • Botanical: Pinus nigra
  • Family: Pinaceae
  • Known as: Pinus laricio, Schwarzkiefer, Schwarzföhre
  • Old Use: medicine, industry
  • Aroma: earthy

Black Pine

Pinus nigra is a large coniferous evergreen tree, growing to 20–55 metres (66–180 ft) tall at maturity. The bark is grey to yellow-brown, and is widely split by flaking fissures into scaly plates, becoming increasingly fissured with age. The leaves ("needles") are thinner and more flexible in western populations.

The ovulate and pollen cones appear from May to June. The mature seed cones are 5–10 cm (rarely to 11 cm) long, with rounded scales; they ripen from green to pale grey-buff or yellow-buff in September to November, about 18 months after pollination. The seeds are dark grey, 6–8 mm long, with a yellow-buff wing 20–25 mm long; they are wind-dispersed when the cones open from December to April. Sexual maturity is reached at 15–40 years; large seed crops are produced at 2–5 year intervals. P. nigra is moderately fast growing, at about 30–70 centimetres (12–28 in) per year. It usually has a rounded conic form, that becomes irregular with age. The tree can be long-lived, with some trees over 500 years old. It needs full sun to grow well, is intolerant of shade, and is resistant to snow and ice damage.

Fir
  • Botanical: Abies alba, Abies pectinata
  • Family: Pinaceae
  • Known as: Abies alba Miller., Abies alba, Silver fir, european silver fir, Weißtanne
  • Old Use: culinary; medicinal; manufacturing
  • Aroma: fresh, earthy, sweet, woody

Fir

A. alba is a large evergreen coniferous tree growing to 40–50 metres (130–160 ft) (exceptionally 60 metres (200 ft)) tall and with a trunk diameter of up to 1.5 metres (4 ft 11 in).

The largest measured tree was 68 m tall and had a trunk diameter of 3.8 metres (12 ft). It occurs at altitudes of 300–1,700 metres (980–5,580 ft) (mainly over 500 metres (1,600 ft)), on mountains with a rainfall of over 1,000 millimetres (39 in).

Larch
  • Botanical: Larix europaea
  • Family: Pinaceae
  • Known as: Lärchtann, Lerbam, Lörbaum, Lorchbaum, Lertanne, Lörtanne, Schönholz
  • Old Use: manufacturing; medicinal
  • Aroma: balsamic, woody

Larch

The larch is a deciduous tree and loses its leaves in the autumn. The shoots are dimorphic, with growth divided into long shoots typically 10–50 centimetres long[citation needed] and bearing several buds, and short shoots only 1–2 mm long with only a single bud.

The leaves are needle-like, 2–5 centimetres long, slender (under 1 cm wide). They are borne singly, spirally arranged on the long shoots, and in dense clusters of 20–50 needles on the short shoots. The needles turn yellow and fall in the late autumn, leaving the trees leafless through the winter.

Pine Scotch
  • Botanical: Pinus sylvestris
  • Family: Pinaceae
  • Known as: Scots Pine, Pinus sylvestris, Schottische Kiefer, Kiefer, Gemeine Kiefer, Rotföhre, Weißkiefer, Forche
  • Old Use: culinary; medicinal
  • Aroma: balsamic, forest

Pine Scotch

Pinus sylvestris is an evergreen coniferous tree growing up to 35 m in height and 1 m trunk diameter when mature, exceptionally to 45 m tall and 1.7 m trunk diameter[citation needed] and on very productive sites (in Estonia, there are some 220-year-old trees that are 46 metres tall in the forests of Järvselja). The bark is thick, scaly dark grey-brown on the lower trunk, and thin, flaky and orange on the upper trunk and branches.

Spruce
  • Botanical: Picea abies
  • Family: Pinaceae
  • Known as: Norway Spruce, Spruce, Picea abies, Feichten, Gräne, Krestling, Pechtanne, Rothtanne, Rottanne, Schwarztanne
  • Old Use: culinary; medicinal
  • Aroma: balsamic, smoky, sweet, woody

Spruce

It is a large, fast-growing evergreen coniferous tree growing 35–55 m (115–180 ft) tall and with a trunk diameter of 1 to 1.5 m. It can grow fast when young, up to 1 m (3 ft) per year for the first 25 years under good conditions, but becomes slower once over 20 m (66 ft) tall. The shoots are orange-brown and glabrous (hairless). The leaves are needle-like, 12–24 mm long, quadrangular in cross-section (not flattened), and dark green on all four sides with inconspicuous stomatal lines.