• borst
  • lavender
  • dandelion

Plant

Buckthorn
  • Botanical: Rhamnus cathartica
  • Family: Rhamnaceae
  • Known as: Buckthorn, Rhamnus frangula, Alder Dogwood, Arrow Wood, Black Dogwood, Purgierkreuzdorn, Echter Kreuzdorn, Amselbeere, Chelgerli, Färberbeere, Hexendorn, Hirschdorn, Kreuzbeere, Purgierdorn, Schyssbeeri, Wegdorn
  • Old Use: medicinal

Buckthorn

Rhamnus cathartica is a deciduous shrub or small tree growing up to 10 m tall, with grey-brown bark and spiny branches. The leaves are elliptic to oval, 2.5–9 cm long and 1.2–3.5 cm broad; they are green, turning yellow in autumn, and are arranged somewhat variably in opposite to subopposite pairs or alternately. The flowers are yellowish-green, with four petals; they are dioecious and insect pollinated. The fruit is a globose black drupe 6–10 mm diameter containing two to four seeds; it is mildly poisonous for people, but readily eaten by birds, which disperse the seeds in their droppings.

Buckthorn
  • Botanical: Rhamnus frangula
  • Family: Rhamnaceae
  • Known as: Buckthorn, Rhamnus frangula, Alder Dogwood, Arrow Wood, Black Dogwood, Purgierkreuzdorn, Echter Kreuzdorn, Amselbeere, Chelgerli, Färberbeere, Hexendorn, Hirschdorn, Kreuzbeere, Purgierdorn, Schyssbeeri, Wegdorn
  • Old Use: medicinal

Buckthorn

The main stem is erect, the bark smooth, of a blackish-brown colour, on the twigs ash-coloured. The smaller branches generally terminate in a stout thorn or spine, hence the ordinary name of Buckthorn, and the older names by which the shrub has been known: Highwaythorn and Waythorn. Gerard calls it Ram or Hart's Thorn. The leaves grow in small bunches on footstalks, mostly opposite towards the base of the young shoots, though more generally alternate towards the apex. They are eggshaped and toothed on the edges, the younger ones with a kind of soft down. In the axils of the more closely arranged leaves, developed from the wood of the preceding year, are dense branches of small greenish-yellow flowers, about one-fifth inch across, which are followed by globular berries about the size of a pea, black and shining when ripe, and each containing four hard, dark-brown seeds.

Cacao
  • Botanical: Theobroma cacao
  • Family: Malvaceae
  • Known as: Cacao, Cocoa, Theobroma cacao, Kakao
  • Old Use: ceremonial, medicinal, culinary

Cacao

Leaves are alternate, entire, unlobed, 10–40 cm (3.9–15.7 in) long and 5–20 cm (2.0–7.9 in) broad.

The flowers are produced in clusters directly on the trunk and older branches; this is known as cauliflory. The flowers are small, 1–2 cm (0.39–0.79 in) diameter, with pink calyx. While many of the world's flowers are pollinated by bees (Hymenoptera) or butterflies/moths (Lepidoptera), cacao flowers are pollinated by tiny flies, Forcipomyia midges in the order Diptera.

Cajeput
  • Botanical: Melaleuca leucadendra
  • Family: Myrtaceae
  • Known as: Cajuput Tree, Cajeput, Silberbaum Myrtenheide, Kajeputbaum, Melaleukaöl, Cajeputbaum
  • Old Use: medicinal use

Cajeput

The tree has a long flexible trunk with irregular ascending branches, covered with a pale thick, lamellated bark it is soft and spongy and from time to time throws off its outer layer in flakes; leaves entire, linear, lanceolate, ash colour, alternate on short foot-stalks; flowers sessile, white, on a long spike.

Calamus
  • Botanical: Acorus calamus
  • Family: Acoraceae
  • Known as: Kalmus, Ackermann, Sweet flag, Sweet sedge,
  • Old Use: culinary; medicinal

Calamus

Acorus calamus Linn. is an herbaceous perennial with a rhizome that is long indefinite branched, smooth, pinkish or pale green. Its leaf scars are brown white and spongy and it possess slight slender roots. The leaves are few and distichously alternate whose size was found to be between 0.7 and 1.7 cm wide with average of 1 cm. The sympoidal leaf of Acorus calamus is shorter than that of the vegetative leaves. The flowers are 3 to 8 cm long, cylindrical, greenish brown and contains multitude of rounded spikes covering it. The fruits are found to be small and berry like with few seeds.

Camphor
  • Botanical: Cinnamomum camphora
  • Family: Lauraceae
  • Known as: Camphor tree, Camphorwood, camphor laurel, Kampfer, Kampferlorbeer
  • Old Use: culinary; medicinal
  • Aroma: camphorus

Camphor

Cinnamomum camphora is a small, glabrous tree. Leaves alternate and penniverved with stout dormant buds enclosed in large, silky orbicular concave, imbricating caducous scales. Flowers in lax axillary, terminal panicles on the ends of the twigs, creamy white in colour, hermaphroditic, actinomorphic; ovary 1, locular; ovule 1, pendulous or basal; stamens definite, free; anthers opening by valves or slits; embryo minute.

Cannabis
  • Botanical: Cannabis Sativa, Cannabis Indica
  • Family: Cannabaceae
  • Known as: Marihuana, Hemp, Cannabis Sativa, Cannabis sativa, Bangue, Bhang, Canamo, Canamo Indio, Chanvre, Ganeb, Ganja, Han Ma, Hanf, Hemp fruit, Hemp Protein, Hennep, Hint Keneviri, Hops, Huang Ma, Huo Ma, Indian Hemp, Kenevir, Kif, Ma Fen, Ma Jen Chiu
  • Old Use: culinary; medicinal

Cannabis

Cannabis is an annual, dioecious, flowering herb. The leaves are palmately compound or digitate, with serrate leaflets. The first pair of leaves usually have a single leaflet, the number gradually increasing up to a maximum of about thirteen leaflets per leaf (usually seven or nine), depending on variety and growing conditions. At the top of a flowering plant, this number again diminishes to a single leaflet per leaf. The lower leaf pairs usually occur in an opposite leaf arrangement and the upper leaf pairs in an alternate arrangement on the main stem of a mature plant.

Caraway
  • Botanical: Carum carvi
  • Family: Apiaceae
  • Known as: Caraway, Carum carvi, meridian fennel, Persian cumin, Kümmel, Kuemmel,
  • Old Use: culinary; medicinal
  • Aroma: sharp, spicy

Caraway

It is a biennial, with smooth, furrowed stems growing 1 1/2 to 2 feet high, hearing finely cut leaves, and umbels of white flowers which blossom in June. The fruitswhich are popularly and incorrectly called seeds - and which correspond in general character to those of the other plants of this large family, are laterally compressed, somewhat horny and translucent, slightly curved, and marked with five distinct, pale ridges.

Cardamom
  • Botanical: Elettaria cardamomum
  • Family: Zingiberaceae
  • Known as: Elettaria cardamomum, Grüne Kardamom
  • Old Use: medicinal; culinary
  • Aroma: balsamic, spicy, sweet

Cardamom

The large perennial herb. yielding Cardamom seeds is known in its own country as 'Elattari' or 'Ilachi,' while 'Cardamomum' was the name by which some Indian spice was known in classical times.

Cashew
  • Botanical: Anacardium occidentale
  • Family: Anacardiaceae
  • Known as: Cajueiro, cashew, cashu, casho, acajuiba, caju, acajou, acaju, acajaiba, alcayoiba, anacarde, anacardier, anacardo, cacajuil, cajou, gajus, jocote maranon, maranon, merey, noix d’acajou, pomme cajou, pomme, jambu, jambu golok, jambu mete, jambu monyet
  • Old Use: medicinal; culinary
  • Aroma: sweet

Cashew

The tree is large and evergreen, growing to 10-12m (~32 ft) tall, with a short, often irregularly shaped trunk. The leaves are spirally arranged, leathery textured, elliptic to obovate, 4 to 22 cm long and 2 to 15 cm broad, with smooth margins. The flowers are produced in a panicle or corymb up to 26 cm long, each flower is small, pale green at first, then turning reddish, with five slender, acute petals 7 to 15 mm long.

Cassia
  • Botanical: Cinnamomum aromaticum
  • Family: Lauraceae
  • Known as: Cassia, Chinese cinnamon, Zimtkassie,
  • Old Use: culinary; medicinal
  • Aroma: oriental, spicy, sweet

Cassia

The cultivated trees are kept as coppices, and numerous shoots, which are not allowed to rise higher than 10 feet, spring from the roots. Their appearance when the flame-coloured leaves and delicate blossoms first appear is very beautiful. The fruit is about the size of a small olive. The leaves are evergreen, ovaloblong blades from 5 to 9 inches long. The trees are at their greatest perfection at the age of ten to twelve years, but they continue to spread and send up new shoots. The bark may be easily distinguished from that of cinnamon, as it is thicker, coarser, darker, and duller, the flavour being more pungent, less sweet and delicate, and slightly bitter.

Castor
  • Botanical: Ricinus communis
  • Family: Euphorbiaceae
  • Known as: Castor Oil Plant, Ricinus communis, Castorbean,
  • Old Use: culinary; medicinal;

Castor

It is a fast-growing, suckering perennial shrub that can reach the size of a small tree (around 12 metres or 39 feet), but it is not cold hardy.

The glossy leaves are 15–45 centimetres (5.9–17.7 in) long, long-stalked, alternate and palmate with 5–12 deep lobes with coarsely toothed segments. In some varieties they start off dark reddish purple or bronze when young, gradually changing to a dark green, sometimes with a reddish tinge, as they mature.

Cayenne Pepper
  • Botanical: Capsicum annuum
  • Family: Solanaceae
  • Known as: Capsicum frutescens, Capsicum chinense, Paprika, Peperoni, Pepperoni, Pfefferoni, Pfefferschoten, Chilli, Chillie, Chilie, Chile, Cayennepfeffer
  • Old Use: culinary, medicinal use

Cayenne Pepper

It is a shrubby perennial plant 2 to 6 feet high. Branches angular, usually enlarged and slightly purple at the nodes; petioles medium; peduncles slender, often in pairs, and longer than the fruit; calyx cup-shaped, clasping base of fruit which is red, ovate, and long; seeds small and flat, from ten to twenty-nine. The cuticle of the pericarp is uniformly striated and in this particular is distinct from other species.

 

Chamomile Corn
  • Botanical: Anthemis arvensis
  • Family: Asteraceae
  • Known as: Mayweed, Scentless Chamomile, Chamomile, Kamille, Matricaria chamomilla, German chamomile

Chamomile Corn

The whole plant is covered in short hairs. The leaves are finely divided with narrow, parallel-sided segments, pointed at the tips and have a pleasant, chamomile-like scent. The 'flowers', borne singly on stout stalks, are technically compound flower-heads made up of numerous small florets and resemble a Daisy. The central florets are yellow, while around the edge are the ray-florets, which have a single long white petal pointing outwards.

Chamomile German
  • Botanical: Matricaria recutita
  • Family: Asteraceae
  • Known as: Chamomile, Kamille, Matricaria chamomilla, German chamomile

Chamomile German

M. chamomilla has a branched, erect and smooth stem, which grows to a height of 15–60 cm (6-24inches). The long and narrow leaves are bipinnate or tripinnate.

The flowers are borne in paniculate flower heads (capitula). The white ray florets are furnished with a ligule, while the disc florets are yellow. The hollow receptacle is swollen and lacks scales. This property distinguishes German chamomile from corn chamomile (Anthemis arvensis), which has a receptacle with scales.