• borst
  • lavender
  • dandelion

Shrub

Aloe
  • Botanical: Aloe succotrina
  • Family: Asphodelaceae
  • Known as: Aloe, Aloe succotrina, Aloe bardadensis, Aloe capensis, Aloe Fynbos, Wüstenlilie, Aloe vera, Aloe vera, Synonyme: Aloe barbadensis, Aloe perfoliata, Aloe vulgaris, Aloe indica, Aloe chinensis,
  • Old Use: medicinal
  • Aroma: balsamic

Aloe

The Aloe succotrina plant forms clusters of between 1–2 metres (3.3–6.6 ft) diameter, with its leaves forming dense rosettes. In winter when it flowers it produces a tall raceme, bearing shiny red flowers that are pollinated by sunbirds.

Belladonna Atropa
  • Botanical: Atropa belladonna
  • Family: Solanaceae
  • Known as: Atropa belladonna, Belladonna, Devil's Berries, Death Cherries, Deadly Nightshade, Tollkirsche
  • Old Use: medicinal

Belladonna Atropa

The root is thick, fleshy and whitish, about 6 inches long, or more, and branching. It is perennial. The purplishcoloured stem is annual and herbaceous. It is stout, 2 to 4 feet high, undivided at the base, but dividing a little above the ground into three - more rarely two or four branches, each of which again branches freely.

Blessed thistle
  • Botanical: Cnicus benedictus
  • Family: Asteraceae
  • Known as: Cnicus,Cnicus benedictus, St. Benedict's thistle, Blessed Thistle, Holy Thistle, Spotted Thistle, Benediktenkraut, Kardobenedikte, Benediktendistel, Benediktenwurz, Bitterdistel, Bernhardinerwurzel, Bornwurz, Natterkraut
  • Old Use: medicinal
  • Aroma: herbaceius

Blessed thistle

It is an annual plant growing to 60 cm tall, with leathery, hairy leaves up to 30 cm long and 8 cm broad, with small spines on the margins. The flowers are yellow, produced in a dense flowerhead (capitulum) 3-4 cm diameter, surrounded by numerous spiny basal bracts.

Buckthorn
  • Botanical: Rhamnus cathartica
  • Family: Rhamnaceae
  • Known as: Buckthorn, Rhamnus frangula, Alder Dogwood, Arrow Wood, Black Dogwood, Purgierkreuzdorn, Echter Kreuzdorn, Amselbeere, Chelgerli, Färberbeere, Hexendorn, Hirschdorn, Kreuzbeere, Purgierdorn, Schyssbeeri, Wegdorn
  • Old Use: medicinal

Buckthorn

Rhamnus cathartica is a deciduous shrub or small tree growing up to 10 m tall, with grey-brown bark and spiny branches. The leaves are elliptic to oval, 2.5–9 cm long and 1.2–3.5 cm broad; they are green, turning yellow in autumn, and are arranged somewhat variably in opposite to subopposite pairs or alternately. The flowers are yellowish-green, with four petals; they are dioecious and insect pollinated. The fruit is a globose black drupe 6–10 mm diameter containing two to four seeds; it is mildly poisonous for people, but readily eaten by birds, which disperse the seeds in their droppings.

Buckthorn
  • Botanical: Rhamnus frangula
  • Family: Rhamnaceae
  • Known as: Buckthorn, Rhamnus frangula, Alder Dogwood, Arrow Wood, Black Dogwood, Purgierkreuzdorn, Echter Kreuzdorn, Amselbeere, Chelgerli, Färberbeere, Hexendorn, Hirschdorn, Kreuzbeere, Purgierdorn, Schyssbeeri, Wegdorn
  • Old Use: medicinal

Buckthorn

The main stem is erect, the bark smooth, of a blackish-brown colour, on the twigs ash-coloured. The smaller branches generally terminate in a stout thorn or spine, hence the ordinary name of Buckthorn, and the older names by which the shrub has been known: Highwaythorn and Waythorn. Gerard calls it Ram or Hart's Thorn. The leaves grow in small bunches on footstalks, mostly opposite towards the base of the young shoots, though more generally alternate towards the apex. They are eggshaped and toothed on the edges, the younger ones with a kind of soft down. In the axils of the more closely arranged leaves, developed from the wood of the preceding year, are dense branches of small greenish-yellow flowers, about one-fifth inch across, which are followed by globular berries about the size of a pea, black and shining when ripe, and each containing four hard, dark-brown seeds.

Calamus
  • Botanical: Acorus calamus
  • Family: Acoraceae
  • Known as: Kalmus, Ackermann, Sweet flag, Sweet sedge,
  • Old Use: culinary; medicinal

Calamus

Acorus calamus Linn. is an herbaceous perennial with a rhizome that is long indefinite branched, smooth, pinkish or pale green. Its leaf scars are brown white and spongy and it possess slight slender roots. The leaves are few and distichously alternate whose size was found to be between 0.7 and 1.7 cm wide with average of 1 cm. The sympoidal leaf of Acorus calamus is shorter than that of the vegetative leaves. The flowers are 3 to 8 cm long, cylindrical, greenish brown and contains multitude of rounded spikes covering it. The fruits are found to be small and berry like with few seeds.

Cannabis
  • Botanical: Cannabis Sativa, Cannabis Indica
  • Family: Cannabaceae
  • Known as: Marihuana, Hemp, Cannabis Sativa, Cannabis sativa, Bangue, Bhang, Canamo, Canamo Indio, Chanvre, Ganeb, Ganja, Han Ma, Hanf, Hemp fruit, Hemp Protein, Hennep, Hint Keneviri, Hops, Huang Ma, Huo Ma, Indian Hemp, Kenevir, Kif, Ma Fen, Ma Jen Chiu
  • Old Use: culinary; medicinal

Cannabis

Cannabis is an annual, dioecious, flowering herb. The leaves are palmately compound or digitate, with serrate leaflets. The first pair of leaves usually have a single leaflet, the number gradually increasing up to a maximum of about thirteen leaflets per leaf (usually seven or nine), depending on variety and growing conditions. At the top of a flowering plant, this number again diminishes to a single leaflet per leaf. The lower leaf pairs usually occur in an opposite leaf arrangement and the upper leaf pairs in an alternate arrangement on the main stem of a mature plant.

Caraway
  • Botanical: Carum carvi
  • Family: Apiaceae
  • Known as: Caraway, Carum carvi, meridian fennel, Persian cumin, Kümmel, Kuemmel,
  • Old Use: culinary; medicinal
  • Aroma: sharp, spicy

Caraway

It is a biennial, with smooth, furrowed stems growing 1 1/2 to 2 feet high, hearing finely cut leaves, and umbels of white flowers which blossom in June. The fruitswhich are popularly and incorrectly called seeds - and which correspond in general character to those of the other plants of this large family, are laterally compressed, somewhat horny and translucent, slightly curved, and marked with five distinct, pale ridges.

Cardamom
  • Botanical: Elettaria cardamomum
  • Family: Zingiberaceae
  • Known as: Elettaria cardamomum, Grüne Kardamom
  • Old Use: medicinal; culinary
  • Aroma: balsamic, spicy, sweet

Cardamom

The large perennial herb. yielding Cardamom seeds is known in its own country as 'Elattari' or 'Ilachi,' while 'Cardamomum' was the name by which some Indian spice was known in classical times.

Cascarilla
  • Botanical: Croton eluteria
  • Family: Euphorbiaceae
  • Known as: Croton eluteria bennet, Kaskarillabaum, cascarilla, cascarilha, amber kabug, sweet bark, sweet wood bark
  • Old Use: medical

Cascarilla

It grows to be a small tree or tall shrub (about 20 feet), rarely reaching 20 feet in height.

Leaves scanty, alternate, ovate-lanceolate, averaging 2 inches long, closely scaled below, giving a metallic silver-bronze appearance, with scattered white scales above.

The flowers are small, with white petals, and very fragrant, appearing in March and April.

The scented bark is fissured, pale yellowish brown, and may be covered in lichen.

Castor
  • Botanical: Ricinus communis
  • Family: Euphorbiaceae
  • Known as: Castor Oil Plant, Ricinus communis, Castorbean,
  • Old Use: culinary; medicinal;

Castor

It is a fast-growing, suckering perennial shrub that can reach the size of a small tree (around 12 metres or 39 feet), but it is not cold hardy.

The glossy leaves are 15–45 centimetres (5.9–17.7 in) long, long-stalked, alternate and palmate with 5–12 deep lobes with coarsely toothed segments. In some varieties they start off dark reddish purple or bronze when young, gradually changing to a dark green, sometimes with a reddish tinge, as they mature.

Clubmoss
  • Botanical: Lycopodium clavatum
  • Family: Lycopodiaceae
  • Known as: Keulen-Bärlapp, Wolfsklaue, Drudenfuss, Denkraut, Gichtmoss, Hexenkraut, Teufelsklauen, Weingrün, Wolfsranke
  • Old Use: The spores of this moss, "lycopodium powder", are explosive if present in the air in high enough densities. They were used as flash powder in early photography an magic acts.

Clubmoss

It is a spore-bearing vascular plant, growing mainly prostrate along the ground with stems up to 1 m long; the stems are much branched, and densely clothed with small, spirally arranged leaves. The leaves are 3–5 mm long and 0.7–1 mm broad, tapered to a fine hair-like white point. The branches bearing spore cones turn erect, reaching 5–15 cm above ground, and have fewer leaves than the horizontal branches. The spore cones are yellow-green, 2–3 cm long, and 5 mm broad. The horizontal stems produce roots at frequent intervals along their length, allowing the stem to grow indefinitely along the ground. The stems superficially resemble small seedlings of coniferous trees, though it is not related to these.

Coca
  • Botanical: Erythroxylum coca
  • Family: Erythroxylaceae
  • Known as: Cuca. Cocaine.

Coca

Small shrubby tree 12 to 18 feet high in the wild state and kept down to about 6 feet when cultivated. Grown from seeds and requires moisture and an equable temperature. Starts yielding in eighteen months and often productive over fifty years. There are two varieties in commerce, the Huanuco Coca, or Erythroxylon Coca, which comes from Bolivia and has leaves of a brownish-green colour, oval, entire and glabrous, with a rather bitter taste, and Peruvian Coca, the leaves of which are much smaller and a pale-green colour.

Coffee
  • Botanical: Coffea arabica
  • Family: Rubiaceae
  • Known as: Caffea
  • Old Use: culinary; medicinal
  • Aroma: fresh, sharp

Coffee

Wild plants grow to between 9 and 12 m (29 and 39 ft) tall, and have an open branching system; the leaves are opposite, simple elliptic-ovate to oblong, 6–12 cm (2.4–4.8 in) long and 4–8 cm (1.6–3.2 in) broad, glossy dark green. The flowers are white, 10–15 mm in diameter and grow in axillary clusters. The fruit is a drupe (though commonly called a "cherry"; the plural form is simply "cherry" - used only when referring to the fruit of C. arabica - when referring to the actual cherry fruit, the appropriate plural is "cherries") 10–15 mm in diameter, maturing bright red to purple and typically contains two seeds (the coffee seeds).

Comfrey
  • Botanical: Symphytum officinale
  • Family: Boraginaceae
  • Known as: Arznei-Beinwell, Beinwurz, Bienenkraut, Echter Beinwell, Gemeiner Beinwell, Gemeine Wallwurz, Gewöhnlicher Beinwell, Glotwurzel, Grosse Wallwurz, Hasenbrot, Hasenlaub, Himmelsbrot, Honigblum, Komfrei, Kuchenkraut, Milchwurz, Schadheilwurzel, Schmalwurz
  • Old Use: medicinal

Comfrey

The leafy stem, 2 to 3 feet high, is stout, angular and hollow, broadly winged at the top and covered with bristly hairs. The lower, radical leaves are very large, up to 10 inches long, ovate in shape and covered with rough hairs which promote itching when touched. The stem-leaves are decurrent, i.e. a portion of them runs down the stem, the body of the leaf being continued beyond its base and point of attachment with the stem. They decrease in size the higher they grow up the stem, which is much branched above and terminated by one-sided clusters of drooping flowers, either creamy yellow, or purple, growing on short stalks.