• borst
  • lavender
  • dandelion

Skin & Hair

Lovage
  • Botanical: Levisticum officinale
  • Family: Apiaceae or Umbelliferae
  • Known as: Liebstöckel, Maggikraut, Luststock, Nusskraut
  • Old Use: medical, industry, culinary

Lovage

Lovage is an erect, herbaceous, perennial plant growing to 1.8–2.5 m tall, with a basal rosette of leaves and stems with further leaves, the flowers being produced in umbels at the top of the stems. The stems and leaves are shiny glabrous green to yellow-green and smell of lime when crushed. The larger basal leaves are up to 70 cm long, tripinnate, with broad triangular to rhomboidal, acutely pointed leaflets with a few marginal teeth; the stem leaves are smaller, and less divided with few leaflets. The flowers are yellow to greenish-yellow, 2–3 mm diameter, produced in globose umbels up to 10–15 cm diameter; flowering is in late spring. The fruit is a dry two-parted schizocarp 4–7 mm long, mature in autumn.

Mastic Tree
  • Botanical: Pistacia lentiscus
  • Family: Pistaciaceae
  • Known as: Mastixstrauch, Wilde Pistazie
  • Old Use: medical, culinary, industry
  • Aroma: resinous, smoky

Mastic Tree

A shrub rarely growing higher than 12 feet. The best Mastic occurs in roundish tears about the size of a small pea, or in flattened, irregular pear-shaped, or oblong pieces covered with a whitish powder. They are pale yellow in colour, which darkens with age. The odour is agreeable and the taste mild and resinous, and when chewed it becomes soft, so that it can easily be masticated. This characteristic enables it to be distinguished froma resin called Sanderach, which it resembles, but which when bitten breaks to powder.

Oak Durmast
  • Botanical: Quercus petraea
  • Family: Fagaceae
  • Known as: Sessile oak, Cornish oak, Durmast oak
  • Old Use: cooking
  • Aroma: forest

Oak Durmast

The sessile oak is a large deciduous tree up to 20–40 m (66–131 ft) tall, in the white oak section of the genus (Quercus sect. Quercus) and similar to the Pedunculate oak, Q. robur, with which it overlaps extensively in range. The leaves are 7–14 cm (2.8–5.5 in) long and 4–8 cm broad, evenly lobed with five to six lobes on each side, and a 1 cm petiole. The flowers are catkins, produced in the spring. The fruit is an acorn 2–3 cm long and 1–2 cm broad, which matures in about six months.

Oak English
  • Botanical: Quercus robur
  • Family: Fagaceae
  • Known as: English oak, Pedunculate Oak, Stieleiche, Sommereiche, Deutsche Eiche, Traubeneiche, Wintereiche, Eke, Eik, Ferkeleiche, Masteiche, Oachen
  • Old Use: cooking
  • Aroma: forest

Oak English

Quercus robur is a large deciduous tree, with circumference of grand oaks from 4 m (13') to exceptional 12m (40'). Majesty Oak with the circumference of 12,2 m (40') is the thickest tree in Great Britain, but Kaive Oak in Latvia with the circumference of 10,2 m (33,5') is the thickest tree in Northern Europe. Q. robur has lobed and nearly sessile (very short-stalked) leaves 7–14 cm long. Flowering takes place in mid spring, and their fruit, called acorns, ripen by the following autumn.

Olive
  • Botanical: Olea europaea
  • Family: Oleaceae
  • Known as: Olivenbaum, Olive
  • Old Use: medical, culinary, industry
  • Aroma: exotic, fruity

Olive

This much-branched evergreen tree varies in size from 2 to 15 m high. The leaves have an opposite, decussate arrangement, and are entire, 3 to 7 cm long and 0.8 to 2.5 cm wide; the apex is acute with a small hook or point, and the base is attenuate to cuneate. Leaf margins are entire and recurved, the upper surface is grey-green and glossy, and the lower surface has a dense covering of silvery, golden or brown scales. Domatia are absent; venation is obvious on the upper surface and obscure on the lower surface; the petiole is up to 10 mm long. Fruit are borne in panicles or racmes 50 to 60mm long. The calyx is four-lobed, about 1mm long. The corolla is greenish-white or cream; the tube is 1 to 2mm long; lobes are about 3mm long and reflexed at the anthesis. The two stamens are fused near the top of the corolla tube, with bilobed stigma. The globose to ellipsoid fruit is a drupe, 6mm in diameter and 15 to 25 mm long; it is fleshy, glaucous to a dull shine when ripe, and purple-black. The tree usually flowers in spring. The wood is much-prized and durable, with a strong smell similar to bay rum, and is used for fine furniture and turnery.

  • Botanical: Liquidambar orientalis
  • Family: Hamamelidaceae
  • Known as: Turkish sweetgum, Orientalische Amberbaum
  • Old Use: medical, parasiticide, indusrty
  • Aroma: balsamic

Oriental Sweetgum

They are all large, deciduous trees, 25–40 metres (82–131 ft) tall, with palmately 3- to 7-lobed leaves arranged spirally on the stems and length of 12.5 to 20 centimetres (4.9 to 7.9 in), having a pleasant aroma when crushed.[3] Mature bark is grayish and vertically grooved.[3] The flowers are small, produced in a dense globular inflorescence 1–2 centimetres (0.39–0.79 in) diameter, pendulous on a 3–7 centimetres (1.2–2.8 in) stem. The fruit is a woody multiple capsule 2–4 centimetres (0.79–1.57 in) in diameter (popularly called a "gumball"), containing numerous seeds and covered in numerous prickly, woody armatures, possibly to attach to fur of animals. The woody biomass is classified as hardwood. In more northerly climates, sweetgum is among the last of trees to leaf out in the spring, and also among the last of trees to drop its leaves in the fall, turning multiple colors

Parsley
  • Botanical: Petroselinum crispum
  • Family: Apiaceae
  • Known as: Petroselinum hortense, Bittersilche, Bockskraut, Geilwurz, Grönte, Kräutel, Peterle, Peterling, Silk, Stehsalat
  • Old Use: culinary and medicinal use
  • Aroma: clean

Parsley

Parsley is a bright green, biennial, plant in temperate climates, or an annual herb in subtropical and tropical areas.

Where it grows as a biennial, in the first year, it forms a rosette of tripinnate leaves 10–25 cm long with numerous 1–3 cm leaflets, and a taproot used as a food store over the winter. In the second year, it grows a flowering stem to 75 cm tall with sparser leaves and flat-topped 3–10 cm diameter umbels with numerous 2 mm diameter yellow to yellowish-green flowers.

Peanut
  • Botanical: Arachis hypogaea
  • Family: Fabaceae
  • Known as: groundnut, earthnuts, ground nuts, goober peas, monkey nuts, pygmy nuts, pig nuts, Erdnuss, Aschantinuss, Arachisnuss, Kamerunnuss
  • Old Use: medical, culinary, industry
  • Aroma: oriental, woody

Peanut

It is an annual herbaceous plant growing 30 to 50 cm (1.0 to 1.6 ft) tall. The leaves are opposite, pinnate with four leaflets (two opposite pairs; no terminal leaflet); each leaflet is 1 to 7 cm (⅜ to 2¾ in) long and 1 to 3 cm (⅜ to 1 inch) across. The flowers are a typical peaflower in shape, 2 to 4 cm (0.8 to 1.6 in) (¾ to 1½ in) across, yellow with reddish veining. The specific name, hypogaea means "under the earth"; after pollination, the flower stalk elongates, causing it to bend until the ovary touches the ground. Continued stalk growth then pushes the ovary underground where the mature fruit develops into a legume pod, the peanut – a classical example of geocarpy. Pods are 3 to 7 cm (1.2 to 2.8 in) long, containing 1 to 4 seeds.

Peru Balsam
  • Botanical: Myroxylon balsamum
  • Family: Fabaceae
  • Known as: Peru Balsam, Tolu Balsam, Myroxylon balsamum, Balsam of Tolu, Balsam of Peru, Myroxylon, Perubalsam, Balsambäume, Cabreúva, Cabreuva, Myrocarpus fastigiatus, Quina, Balsamo
  • Old Use: medicinal, culinary; flavoring
  • Aroma: balsamic, spicy, sweet, warm

Peru Balsam

The trees are large, growing to 40 metres (130 ft) tall, with evergreen pinnate leaves 15 centimetres (5.9 in) long, with 5–13 leaflets. The flowers are white with yellow stamens, produced in racemes. The fruit is a pod 7–11 centimetres (2.8–4.3 in) long, containing a single seed.

The wood is dark brown, with a deep red heartwood. Natural oils grant it excellent decay resistance. In fact, it is also resistant to preservative treatment. Its specific gravity is 0.74 to 0.81.

Poison Hemlock
  • Botanical: Conium maculatum
  • Family: Apiaceae
  • Known as: Conium chaerophylloides, Hemlock, Gefleckter Schierling,
  • Old Use: medical, industry

Poison Hemlock

It is a herbaceous biennial plant that grows between 1.5–2.5 metres (5–8 ft) tall, with a smooth green hollow stem, usually spotted or streaked with red or purple on the lower half of the stem. All parts of the plant are hairless (glabrous). The leaves are 2-4-pinnate, finely divided and lacy, overall triangular in shape, up to 50 centimetres (20 in) long and 40 centimetres (16 in) broad. The flowers are small, white, clustered in umbels up to 10–15 centimetres (4–6 in) across. When crushed, the leaves and root emit a rank, unpleasant odour often compared to that of parsnips. It produces a large number of seeds that allow the plant to form thick stands in modified soils.

Pomegranate
  • Botanical: Punica granatum
  • Family: Lythraceae
  • Known as: Granatapfelbaum
  • Old Use: culinary; medicinal
  • Aroma: exotic, fruity, sweet

Pomegranate

An attractive shrub or small tree, to 20 or 30 ft (6 or 10 m) high, the Pomegranate is much-branched, more or less spiny.

An extremely long-lived species, some specimens at Versailles are known to have survived two centuries. The leaves are evergreen or deciduous, opposite or in whorls of 5 or 6, short-stemmed, oblong-lanceolate, 3/8 to 4 in (1-10 cm) long and leathery. Showy flowers are home on the branch tips singly or as many as 5 in a cluster.

Quinine
  • Botanical: Cinchona officinalis
  • Family: Rubiaceae
  • Known as: Quinine Bark tree
  • Old Use: medical

Quinine

The Cinchona plants are large shrubs or small trees with evergreen foliage, growing 5–15 m (16–49 ft) in height. The leaves are opposite, rounded to lanceolate and 10–40 cm long. The flowers are white, pink or red, produced in terminal panicles. The fruit is a small capsule containing numerous seeds.

Ratanhia
  • Botanical: Krameria lappacea
  • Family: Polygalaceae
  • Known as: Para rhatany, Peruvian rhatany, Ratanhia, Rote Ratanhia, Payta Ratanhia
  • Old Use: medical

Ratanhia

It is a low shrub with large red flowers. The root, as found in commerce, consists of long, cylindrical pieces, varying in thickness from 1/4 to 1/2 inch or more (long Rhatany), or a short, thick portion, knotted, and as large as a man's fist (short, or stumpy Rhatany).

The bark of the root is thin, readily separable, rough and scaly; of a dark, reddish-brown colour outside, and bright brownish-red within. It breaks with a somewhat fibrous fracture, is tough and difficult to powder, and has a strong, purely astringent taste, tingeing the saliva red when chewed. The central woody portion is very hard and almost tasteless. Neither bark nor wood has any marked odour. As the virtues of Rhatany reside in the bark, the smaller pieces are preferable.

Rice
  • Botanical: Oryza sativa
  • Family: Poaceae
  • Known as: Reis, Nivara. Dhan. O. montana. O. setegera. O. latifolia. Bras. Paddy.
  • Old Use: culinary, medical
  • Aroma: clean, oriental

Rice

Rice is an annual plant with several jointed culms or stems from 2 to 10 feet long, the lower part floating in water or prostrate, with roots at the nodes, the rest erect. The panicle is terminal and diffuse, bowing when the seed is weighty. It is probably indigenous to China, and certainly to India, where the wild form grows by tanks, ditches and rivers. It was early introduced into East Africa and Syria, and later into America, where it already appears as a native plant. In Europe, rice was brought into the Mediterranean basin from Syria by the Arabs in the Middle Ages, but is now grown largely only in the plain of Lombardy, and a little in Spain. In England it has been cultivated merely as a curiosity, and may be seen in the hothouses of most botanic gardens, treated as a water plant. The Cingalese distinguish 160 kinds, while 50 or 60 are cultivated in India, not including the wild form, from which the grain is collected, though it is never cultivated. Most kinds require irrigation, but some need little water, or can be grown on ordinary, dry ground. Oryza (the classical name of the grain), or the husked seeds, is called Bras by the Malays, and Paddy when it is enclosed in the husk. Carolina and Patna rice are the most esteemed in England and the United States. The grain of the first is round and flat, and boils soft for puddings; the latter has a long and narrow grain that keeps its shape well for curries, etc. The flour procured from the seeds is called Oryzae Farina, or rice flour, commonly known as ground rice. The granules of rice starch are the smallest of all known starch granules.

Rose Cabbage
  • Botanical: Rosa centifolia
  • Family: Rosaceae
  • Known as: Rosa gallica, Centifolie, Bischofsrose, Fleischrose, Gartenrose, hundertblättrige Rose, Jungfernrose, Kaiserrose, Knopfrose, Moosrose, Pomponrose, Trianonrose, Vielblättrige Rose
  • Old Use: culinary

Rose Cabbage

Rose plants are usually shrubby, in appearance with long drooping canes and grayish green leaves. The flowers are round and globular, with thin overlapping petals that are highly scented. The shrub is erect, with a height of 3 to 6 feet. The branches are closely covered with nearly straight prickles. The shoots of the plant are also erect. The leaves are unequally pinnate and there are 5 to 7 leaflets, which are oblong or ovate. The flowers of rose plant, which account for the petals, are large and pinkish or red in color. The flowers vary in hues, form and size. There are 100 documented varieties of flowers from this plant.