• borst
  • lavender
  • dandelion

Tree

 Wax Tree
  • Botanical: Toxicodendron succedaneum
  • Family: Anacardiaceae
  • Known as: Japanese wax tree, Poison ivy, Poison oak, Poison wine.
  • Old Use: medical, culinary, industry

Wax Tree

Rhus Toxicodendron, or Poison oak, is a creeping shrub from 1 to 3 feet high, with long cord-like shoots, emitting strong lateral fibers; the stems are either erect or decumbent. The bark is brownish-gray. The leaves are ternate, on long, semi-cylindrical petioles; the leaflets are broadly oval or rhomboidal, 2 to 6 inches long, 2/3 as wide, petiolate, acuminate, smooth and shining above, slightly downy beneath, especially on the veins; the margin is sometimes entire, and sometimes variously toothed and lobed, in the same plant. The flowers are small, greenish-white, dioecious, and grow in axillary, subsessile, racemose panicles on the sides of the new shoots. Barren flowers have a calyx of 5 erect, acute segments, and a corolla of 5 oblong recurved petals; stamens erect with oblong anthers; in the center is a rudiment of a style. Fertile flowers about half the size of the preceding, with calyx and corolla similar, but more erect. They have 5 small abortive stamens, and a roundish ovary, crowned by a short, erect style bearing 3 small capitate stigmas. The fruit is a roundish, smooth, dry berry, of a pale-green color, approaching to white, and contains a solitary bony seed

African Oil Palm
  • Botanical: Elaeis guineensis Jacq.
  • Family: Arecaceae
  • Known as: Ölpalme, Oil palm, African oil palm, mchikichi, mjenga (Kiswahili), mubira, munazi (Luganda)
  • Old Use: medical, culinary, industry

African Oil Palm

Oil palm tree has an erect trunk reaching a height of 4 to 10 meters. Leaves are numerous, 3 to 4.5 meters long. Petioles are broad, armed on the sides with spinescent, reduced leaves. Leaflets are numerous, linear-lanceolate, nearly 1 meter long, 2 to 4 centimeters wide. Male inflorescence is dense, having numerous, cylindric spikes which are 7 to 12 centimeters long and about 1 centimeter in diameter; the rachises excurrent as a stout awn. Female inflorescence is dense, branched, 20 to 30 centimeters long, the flowers densely disposed. Fruit is borne in large dense masses.

African Redwood
  • Botanical: Hagenia abyssinica
  • Family: Rosaceae
  • Known as: African redwood, East African Rosewood, brayera, cusso, hagenia, kousso, Kosobaum, Kossobaum
  • Old Use: medical

African Redwood

Dioecious, small to medium-sized tree, up to 20 m tall; bole rarely straight, up to 60(–220) cm in diameter; bark pale red-brown, flaky; crown wide, umbrella-shaped; young branches densely covered with short, villous hairs and long, erect, silvery, soft, often glandular hairs turning reddish-green, with ring-like, long persisting leaf scars. Leaves alternate, imparipinnate, up to 50 cm long; petiole up to 15 cm long, with 2, up to 1.5 cm wide, thin, leafy lateral wings (adnate stipules) at base surrounding the twig as a sheath; leaflets up to 17, alternate to subopposite, subsessile, narrowly oblong to elliptical, 9–15 cm × 2–5 cm, obliquely obtuse at base, acuminate at apex, margin serrate and long silky hairy, the teeth usually ending in a thickened gland, pinnately veined with veins prominent below and having long silky hairs; much smaller, suborbicular leaflets up to 2.5 cm in diameter may occur alternating with the normal leaflets. Inflorescence a terminal, drooping, much-branched, many-flowered panicle up to 60 cm × 30 cm, yellowish, often bright red tinged; branches villous to long silky hairy, sticky, subtended by leafy bracts, rachis usually zigzag. Flowers unisexual, regular; pedicel up to 3.5 mm long, densely hairy, subtending bracts clasping the pedicel at base, bracteoles reniform; hypanthium a conical, silky hairy tube 2–3 mm long, with 2 whorls of (4–)5 green or reddish tinged lobes (epicalyx and calyx), in male flowers epicalyx lobes smaller than calyx lobes, in female flowers larger and enlarging up to 10 mm long in fruit; petals (4–)5, vestigial, up to 1.5 mm long, alternating with the calyx lobes; stamens 15–20, filaments up to 3 mm long in male flowers, in female flowers rudimentary; pistils usually 2, free within the hypanthium, ovary with a tuft of hairs at top, style subfiliform, stigma capitate, usually only one ovary per female flower developing to fruit, in male flowers functionally sterile. Fruit a globose to ovoid achene up to 2.5 mm in diameter, with a thin, papery, pale to brown pericarp, white-hairy at top, enclosed by the dry persistent hypanthium with the epicalyx serving as wings. Seed subglobose to subovoid, only slightly smaller than the fruit, usually with a wrinkled, brown, glabrous testa.

Almond
  • Botanical: Prunus dulcis
  • Family: Rosaceae, Amygdalus communis,
  • Known as: Sweet Almond, Bitter Almond, Mandel, Bitter Mandel
  • Old Use: culinary

Almond

The almond is a deciduous tree, growing 4–10 m (13–33 ft) in height, with a trunk of up to 30 cm (12 in) in diameter. The young twigs are green at first, becoming purplish where exposed to sunlight, then grey in their second year. The leaves are 3–5 inches long, with a serrated margin and a 2.5 cm (1 in) petiole. The flowers are white to pale pink, 3–5 cm (1–2 in) diameter with five petals, produced singly or in pairs and appearing before the leaves in early spring.

Almond Java
  • Botanical: Canarium commune
  • Known as: Protium, Amyris elemifera, Boswellia frereana, Bursera elemifera, Bursera penicillata, Bursera tomentosa, Canarium indicum, Canarium mauritianum, Protium icicariba
  • Old Use: Burseraceae
  • Aroma: smoky, woody

Almond Java

They grow up to large evergreen trees of 40–50 m (130–160 ft) tall, and have alternately arranged, pinnate leaves.

Manila elemi, when recent, occurs in transparent, soft, granular masses, consisting of a solution of solid resin in essential oil. Externally it has a light, canary-yellow color, and, as found in commerce, is largely solidified, presenting an opaque and granular fracture, due to the crystallization of the resin. Chips and other foreign substances are often found in the solid fragments. When wetted with a little alcohol, elemi readily disintegrates, showing a multitude of small, crystalline needles. It melts easily, a transparent fluid resulting. It has an aromatic, warm, acrid taste, and a fragrant odor, resembling that of the terebinthinates, the drug in many respects closely resembling the latter class of substances. It is insoluble in water, partly soluble in cold, and completely soluble in hot alcohol; easily soluble also in oil of turpentine and ether.

Apple
  • Botanical: Pirus Malus
  • Family: Pomaceae
  • Known as: Wild Apple. Malus communis.
  • Old Use: medical, culinary, industry
  • Aroma: floral, sweet

Apple

Apple trees are typically 4–12 m (13–39 ft) tall at maturity, with a dense, twiggy crown. The leaves are 3–10 cm (1.2–3.9 in) long, alternate, simple, with a serrated margin. The flowers are borne in corymbs, and have five petals, which may be white, pink or red, and are perfect, with usually red stamens that produce copious pollen, and a half-inferior ovary; flowering occurs in the spring after 50–80 growing degree days (varying greatly according to subspecies and cultivar). Apples require cross-pollination between individuals by insects (typically bees, which freely visit the flowers for both nectar and pollen); all are self-sterile, and (with the exception of a few specially developed cultivars) self-pollination is impossible, making pollinating insects essential. Several Malus species, including domestic apples, hybridize freely. They are used as food plants by the larvae of a large number of Lepidoptera species; see list of Lepidoptera that feed on Malus. The fruit is a globose pome, varying in size from 1–4 cm (0.39–1.57 in) diameter in most of the wild species, to 6 cm (2.4 in) in M. sylvestris sieversii, 8 cm (3.1 in) in M. domestica, and even larger in certain cultivated orchard apples. The centre of the fruit contains five carpels arranged star-like, each containing one or two seeds.

Arar Tree
  • Botanical: Tetraclinis articulata
  • Family: Cupressaceae
  • Known as: Tetraclinis, Araar, Thuja articulata, Sandarac, Sandarac Tree, Barbary Thuja, Sandarakbaum, Gliederzypresse, Berberthuja
  • Old Use: medical

Arar Tree

It is a small, slow-growing tree, to 6–15 m (rarely 20 m) tall and 0.5 m (rarely 1 m) trunk diameter, often with two or more trunks from the base. The foliage forms in open sprays with scale-like leaves 1–8 mm long and 1–1.5 mm broad; the leaves are arranged in opposite decussate pairs, with the successive pairs closely then distantly spaced, so forming apparent whorls of four. The cones are 10–15 mm long, green ripening brown in about 8 months from pollination, and have four thick scales arranged in two opposite pairs. The seeds are 5–7 mm long and 2 mm broad, with a 3–4 mm broad papery wing on each side

Beech
  • Botanical: Fagus sylvatica
  • Family: Fagaceae
  • Known as: European Beech, Rothbuche, Buche
  • Old Use: culinary; medicinal

Beech

It is a large tree, capable of reaching heights of up to 50 m (160 ft) tall and 3 m (9.8 ft) trunk diameter, though more typically 25–35 m (82–115 ft) tall and up to 1.5 m (4.9 ft) trunk diameter. A 10-year-old sapling will stand about 4 m (13 ft) tall. It has a typical lifespan of 150 to 200 years, though sometimes up to 300 years. 30 years are needed to attain full maturity (as compared to 40 for American beech).

Bergamot
  • Botanical: Citrus bergamia
  • Family: Rutaceae
  • Known as: Bergamia, Bitter Orange, Citrus bergamot, Citrus bergamia Risso, Bergamotte,
  • Old Use: culinary; medicinal
  • Aroma: citrus, fruity, sweet

Bergamot

Erect, unarmed, much branched tree up to 12 m tall, with trunk up to 25 cm in diameter; in cultivation trees are pruned up to 4-5 m in height with crown diameter of about 5 m. Leaves alternate, simple, glandular, aromatic when bruised; petiole about 13 mm long, moderately winged, articulated near the blade; blade lanceolate, up to 12 cm x 6 cm, in upper third part weakly indented. Inflorescence terminal, racemose, many-flowered; pedicel up to 8 mm long; flowers bisexual, 4-5(-10)-merous,

Betel Palm
  • Botanical: Areca catechu
  • Family: Palmacea
  • Known as: Areca Palm, Areca Nut Palm, Indian Nut, Pinang Palm, Bunga, Pinang, Betelnusspalme, Betelpalme, Katechupalme, Arekapalme
  • Old Use: medical, culinary
  • Aroma: fresh

Betel Palm

Areca catechu is a medium-sized and palm tree, growing straight to 20 m tall, with a trunk 10–15 cm in diameter. The leaves are 1.5–2 m long, pinnate, with numerous, crowded leaflets.

 

Birch Sweet
  • Botanical: Betula lenta
  • Family: Betulaceae
  • Known as: Betula alba, Black Birch, Cherry Birch, Mahogany Birch, Spice Birch, Maibaum, Frühlingsbaum, Besenbaum, Besenbirke, Bork, Bark, Hexenbesen, Hängebirke, Moorbirke, Rauhbirke, Sandbirke, Warzenbirke, Weissbirke
  • Old Use: culinary and medicinal use
  • Aroma: sweet

Birch Sweet

It is a  A medium sized tree with a single straight trunk reaching up to 60 feet tall.

Leaf: Alternate, simple, pinnately-veined, ovate, with an acute tip and cordate base, singly or irregularly doubly, sharply serrate margins, 2 to 4 inches long, petiole is stout and pubescent, dark shiny green above, paler below.

Black Cutch
  • Botanical: Acacia catechu
  • Family: Leguminosae
  • Known as: Senegalia catechu, khair, kachu, catechu, cachou, cutchtree, black cutch, black catechu, Gerber Akazie, Katechu Akazie
  • Old Use: medical, industry, culinary

Black Cutch

Plant is of small to moderate size of about 15m hight. Bark is dark grey or grayish-brown.

Leaves are bipinnately compound, with 9-30 pairs of pinnae and a glandular rachis; leaflets 16-50 pairs, oblong-linear, 2-6 mm long, glabrous or pubescent. Flowers are 5-10 cm long (auxiliary spikes, pentamerous), white to pale yellow and with a campanulate calyx of 1-1.5 mm length, and a corolla of 2.5-3 mm length. Stamens are numerous and far exerted from the corolla, with white to yellowish white filaments.

Black Pine
  • Botanical: Pinus nigra
  • Family: Pinaceae
  • Known as: Pinus laricio, Schwarzkiefer, Schwarzföhre
  • Old Use: medicine, industry
  • Aroma: earthy

Black Pine

Pinus nigra is a large coniferous evergreen tree, growing to 20–55 metres (66–180 ft) tall at maturity. The bark is grey to yellow-brown, and is widely split by flaking fissures into scaly plates, becoming increasingly fissured with age. The leaves ("needles") are thinner and more flexible in western populations.

The ovulate and pollen cones appear from May to June. The mature seed cones are 5–10 cm (rarely to 11 cm) long, with rounded scales; they ripen from green to pale grey-buff or yellow-buff in September to November, about 18 months after pollination. The seeds are dark grey, 6–8 mm long, with a yellow-buff wing 20–25 mm long; they are wind-dispersed when the cones open from December to April. Sexual maturity is reached at 15–40 years; large seed crops are produced at 2–5 year intervals. P. nigra is moderately fast growing, at about 30–70 centimetres (12–28 in) per year. It usually has a rounded conic form, that becomes irregular with age. The tree can be long-lived, with some trees over 500 years old. It needs full sun to grow well, is intolerant of shade, and is resistant to snow and ice damage.

Black Poplar
  • Botanical: Populus nigra
  • Family: Salicaceae
  • Known as: Schwarz Pappel, Saarbaum
  • Old Use: medical, culinary, industry

Black Poplar

It is a medium-sized to large deciduous tree, reaching 20–30 m (rarely 40 m) tall, with a trunk up to 1.5 m diameter, though some old individuals have grown much bigger (more than 3 meters DBH for several trees in France). The leaves are diamond-shaped to triangular, 5–8 cm long and 6–8 cm broad, green on both surfaces.[2] The species is dioecious (male and female flowers on different plants), with flowers in catkins and pollination by wind. The black poplar grows in low-lying areas of moist ground.

Boldo
  • Botanical: Peumus boldus
  • Family: Monimiaceae
  • Known as: Boldea fragrans, Peumus fragrans, boldo, boldu, boldus, boldoa, boldina, baldina, molina
  • Old Use: medicinal; culinary
  • Aroma: sweet

Boldo

Boldo is an evergreen tree or shrub growing up to six metres in height. It belongs to the monimiaceae family, which are closely related to the laurel family. It is dioecious.

Boldo's light grey-green leathery leaves are elliptical-oval, entire, and have light-coloured tubercles on the surface. They have a characteristic odour and a burning-spicy, slightly bitter taste. The intensely fragrant radial flowers are white or yellowish and arranged in an inflorescence. The oval, aromatic pitted fruits are edible.

Boldo flowers throughout the year.