- Botanical: Pterocarpus marsupium
- Family: Fabaceae
- Hits: 573
Known asMalabar Kino, Indian Kino Tree, Benga, Bijiayasal, Piasal, Venkai
Old Usemedical, industry
Parts Usedflowers, leaves, wood
Medicinalabdominal pain, angina, angina, arteriosclerosis, bronchitis, bronchitis, bruises, cholesterol lowering, coughs, cramps, diabetes, diarrhea, hemorrhoids, insect bites, insect repellend, intestinal parasites, rheumatism, toothache, wounds, throat infections
Heart & Circulationarteriosclerosis
Hormone & Sexual Organsmenstrual problems, uterine bleeding
Infection & Inflammationinfections intestinal, skin inflammation, toothache
Muscle & Jointsrheumatism
Respiratory Systembronchitis, cough
Stomach & Intestinaldiabetes, diarrhea, digestion, gastrointestinal
Skin & Hairboils, burns
Propertiesantitoxic, digestive, emmenagogue, expectorant, parasiticide
It is of moderate size to large tree. The height ranges from 15 to 30 meters. The stem is stout and crooked with widely spreading branches. The bark is thick and dark brown to grey in colour. Leaves are compound and imparipinnate. Leaflets are 5-7, coriaceous, oblong, obtuse, emarginated or even bilobed at the apex and glabrous on both surfaces. The petioles are round, smooth and waved from leaflet to leaflet, 5 or 6 inches long and there are no stipules. Panicles are terminal and very large; ramifications are bifarious, like the leaves. Peduncles and pedicals are round and a little downy. Bracts are small, caduceus, solitary below each division and subdivision of the panicle. The flowers are very numerous, white, with a small tinge of yellow. Vexillum is with a long, slender claw, very broad; sides reflexed, waved, curled and veined; keel is two pettled, adhering slightly for a little way near the middle, waved, etc., same as the vexillum. Stamens are 10, united near the base, but soon dividing into two parcels of 5 each; anthers are globose and 2-lobed. Ovary is oblong, pedicelled, hairy, generally 2-celled; cells are transverse and 1seeded. Style is ascending. The legume, which is borne on a long petiole, is three-fourths orbicular, the upper remainder, which extends from the pedicel to the remainder of the style, is straight, the whole surrounded with a waved, veiny, downy, membraneous wing, swelled, rugose, woody in the center, where the seed is lodged and not opening; generally one but sometimes 2-celled. Seeds are single and reniform
Properties & Uses
Indian kino has many therapeutic and medicinal properties and is used in treating conditions like elephantiasis, diarrhea, leucoderma, rectalgia, cough, dysentery, rheumatoid arthritis and grey hair. The crushed leaves of the plant are used externally for the treatment of boils, sores and certain types of skin diseases. Consumption of the herb helps to lower the lipid and glucose levels of the body. It leads to the significant reduction in the blood sugar levels, in diabetic patients. One of the major effects of Indian kino in human body is that it helps to prevent cell proliferation and induces apoptotic effect in tumor cell lines. It is also used as an astringent and helps to cure dental problems, like toothache. The herb also has anthelmintic properties and is a bitter acrid and an anodyne. Indian kino prevents the leakage of electrolytes, caused by herbicide-induced oxidative damage. Indian Kino exhibits strong antihyperlipdemic properties and helps in reducing total cholesterol, LDL, VLDL and serum triglyceride levels in the human body. It, however, does not cause any change in the HDL cholesterol levels. The herb also has antimicrobial properties and is used to act against certain types of bacteria and virus. Another vital function of the herb is that it has scavenging properties, which work against mitochondrial lipid peroxidation.
In Karnataka the plant is known as Honne or Kempu Honne.Kannada people in India make a wooden tumbler from the heartwood of this herb tree and its aqueous solution is used to cure diabetes. Water is left overnight in the wooden tumbler and is consumed the following morning. The water draws healing properties from the wood overnight. The gum resin of P. marsupium is the only herbal product ever found to regenerate beta cells that produce insulin in the pancreas. P. marsupium is also available in powder form which is made from the bark of the tree.
Indian kino does not cause any allergic reactions or any other side effects on consumption.
It is native to India, Nepal, and Sri Lanka, where it occurs in parts of the Western Ghats in the Karnataka-Kerala region and also in the forests of Central India. It is also known by the names Malabar Kino, Benga, Bijiayasal (in western Nepal), Piasal (Oriya), Venkai, and many others.
Epicatechin, pterosupin, liquiritigenin, isoliquiritigenin, marsupol, marsupinol, carpusin, epicatechin, pterostilbene, kinotannic acid, beta-eudesmol, kinoin, kino-red