Plant (215)

Allspice
  • Botanical: Pimenta dioica
  • Family: Myrtaceae
  • Known as: Allspice, Jamaica pepper, kurundu, myrtle pepper, pimenta, newspice, Nelkenpfeffer, Jamaikapfeffer, Neugewürz, Englisches Gewürz, Viergewürz, Wunderpfeffer, Gewürzkorn
  • Old Use: culinary; medicinal

Allspice

A tropical, evergreen tree, usually 7-10 m tall, but sometimes reaching 20 m, with a smooth, grey bark. Individual trees are functionally dioecious (plants are either male or female) although individual flowers are structurally hermaphrodite (have male and female parts within the same flower). The small, white flowers are held in compound inflorescences and are followed by green berries that turn purple when ripe. 

Anise
  • Botanical: Pimpinella anisum
  • Family: Apiaceae
  • Known as: Pimpinella anisum L., anise burnet saxifrage, Anise, Anis,
  • Old Use: culinary; medicinal
  • Aroma: spicy, sweet

Anise

Anise is a herbaceous annual plant growing to 1 m (3 ft) or more tall. The leaves at the base of the plant are simple, 1–5 cm (⅜-2 in.) long and shallowly lobed, while leaves higher on the stems are feathery pinnate, divided into numerous leaves. The flowers are white, approximately 3 mm in (⅛ in.) in diameter, produced in dense umbels. The fruit is an oblong dry schizocarp, 3–6 mm (⅛-¼ in.) long, usually called "aniseed".

Anise is a food plant for the larvae of some Lepidoptera species (butterflies and moths), including the lime-speck pug and wormwood pug.

Arnica
  • Botanical: Arnica Montana
  • Family: Asteraceae
  • Known as: Arnika, Mountain Arnica, Bergdotterblume, Engelkraut, Fallkraut, Johannisblume, Kraftrose, Kraftwurz, St-Luzianskraut, Stichwurzel, Wohlverleih, Wundkraut, Wolferley, Wolffelei, Wolfsblume, Wolfsbann, Wolfsdistel, Bergwurz, Gemswurz, Kraftwurzel, Bergweg

Arnica

Arnica plants have a deep-rooted, erect stem that is usually unbranched. Their downy opposite leaves are borne towards the apex of the stem. The ovoid, leathery basal leaves are arranged in a rosette.

They show large yellow or orange flowers, 6–8 cm wide with 10–15 long ray florets and numerous disc florets. The phyllaries (a bract under the flowerhead) has long spreading hairs.

Basil
  • Botanical: Ocimum basilicum L.
  • Family: Lamiaceae
  • Known as: Basilikum, Königskraut,
  • Old Use: culinary; medicinal
  • Aroma: floral, sharp

Basil

Common or Sweet Basil which is used in medicine and also for culinary purposes, especially in France, is a hairy, labiate plant, growing about 3 feet high. The stem is obtusely quadrangular, the labiate flowers are white, in whorls in the axils of the leaves, the calyx with the upper lobe rounded and spreading. The leaves, greyish-green beneath and dotted with dark oil cells, are opposite, 1 inch long and 1/3 inch broad, stalked and peculiarly smooth, soft and cool to the touch, and if slightly bruised exale a delightful scent of cloves.

Beech
  • Botanical: Fagus sylvatica
  • Family: Fagaceae
  • Known as: European Beech, Rothbuche, Buche
  • Old Use: culinary; medicinal

Beech

It is a large tree, capable of reaching heights of up to 50 m (160 ft) tall and 3 m (9.8 ft) trunk diameter, though more typically 25–35 m (82–115 ft) tall and up to 1.5 m (4.9 ft) trunk diameter. A 10-year-old sapling will stand about 4 m (13 ft) tall. It has a typical lifespan of 150 to 200 years, though sometimes up to 300 years. 30 years are needed to attain full maturity (as compared to 40 for American beech).

Beet
  • Botanical: Beta vulgaris
  • Family: Chenopodiaceae
  • Known as: Beet Root, Garden Beet, Mangold, Runkelrübe, Zucker­rü­be, Rote Bete, Rote Rübe
  • Old Use: culinary; medicinal
  • Aroma: balsamic, oriental, sweet

Beet

A polymorphic biennial (flowering in the second year of growth), up to 2 m tall when in flower.

Basal leaves forming a rosette.

Flowers are small, green, borne in clusters subtended by bracts, forming dense, usually branched inflorescences. Each flower contains two stigmas (female parts).

‘Seeds’ are actually fruits that are attached to each other and enveloped in a woody covering (calyces). 

Bergamot
  • Botanical: Citrus bergamia
  • Family: Rutaceae
  • Known as: Bergamia, Bitter Orange, Citrus bergamot, Citrus bergamia Risso, Bergamotte,
  • Old Use: culinary; medicinal
  • Aroma: citrus, fruity, sweet

Bergamot

Erect, unarmed, much branched tree up to 12 m tall, with trunk up to 25 cm in diameter; in cultivation trees are pruned up to 4-5 m in height with crown diameter of about 5 m. Leaves alternate, simple, glandular, aromatic when bruised; petiole about 13 mm long, moderately winged, articulated near the blade; blade lanceolate, up to 12 cm x 6 cm, in upper third part weakly indented. Inflorescence terminal, racemose, many-flowered; pedicel up to 8 mm long; flowers bisexual, 4-5(-10)-merous,

Calamus
  • Botanical: Acorus calamus
  • Family: Acoraceae
  • Known as: Kalmus, Ackermann, Sweet flag, Sweet sedge,
  • Old Use: culinary; medicinal

Calamus

Acorus calamus Linn. is an herbaceous perennial with a rhizome that is long indefinite branched, smooth, pinkish or pale green. Its leaf scars are brown white and spongy and it possess slight slender roots. The leaves are few and distichously alternate whose size was found to be between 0.7 and 1.7 cm wide with average of 1 cm. The sympoidal leaf of Acorus calamus is shorter than that of the vegetative leaves. The flowers are 3 to 8 cm long, cylindrical, greenish brown and contains multitude of rounded spikes covering it. The fruits are found to be small and berry like with few seeds.

Camphor
  • Botanical: Cinnamomum camphora
  • Family: Lauraceae
  • Known as: Camphor tree, Camphorwood, camphor laurel, Kampfer, Kampferlorbeer
  • Old Use: culinary; medicinal
  • Aroma: camphorus

Camphor

Cinnamomum camphora is a small, glabrous tree. Leaves alternate and penniverved with stout dormant buds enclosed in large, silky orbicular concave, imbricating caducous scales. Flowers in lax axillary, terminal panicles on the ends of the twigs, creamy white in colour, hermaphroditic, actinomorphic; ovary 1, locular; ovule 1, pendulous or basal; stamens definite, free; anthers opening by valves or slits; embryo minute.

Cannabis
  • Botanical: Cannabis Sativa, Cannabis Indica
  • Family: Cannabaceae
  • Known as: Marihuana, Hemp, Cannabis Sativa, Cannabis sativa, Bangue, Bhang, Canamo, Canamo Indio, Chanvre, Ganeb, Ganja, Han Ma, Hanf, Hemp fruit, Hemp Protein, Hennep, Hint Keneviri, Hops, Huang Ma, Huo Ma, Indian Hemp, Kenevir, Kif, Ma Fen, Ma Jen Chiu
  • Old Use: culinary; medicinal

Cannabis

Cannabis is an annual, dioecious, flowering herb. The leaves are palmately compound or digitate, with serrate leaflets. The first pair of leaves usually have a single leaflet, the number gradually increasing up to a maximum of about thirteen leaflets per leaf (usually seven or nine), depending on variety and growing conditions. At the top of a flowering plant, this number again diminishes to a single leaflet per leaf. The lower leaf pairs usually occur in an opposite leaf arrangement and the upper leaf pairs in an alternate arrangement on the main stem of a mature plant.

Cassia
  • Botanical: Cinnamomum aromaticum
  • Family: Lauraceae
  • Known as: Cassia, Chinese cinnamon, Zimtkassie,
  • Old Use: culinary; medicinal
  • Aroma: oriental, spicy, sweet

Cassia

The cultivated trees are kept as coppices, and numerous shoots, which are not allowed to rise higher than 10 feet, spring from the roots. Their appearance when the flame-coloured leaves and delicate blossoms first appear is very beautiful. The fruit is about the size of a small olive. The leaves are evergreen, ovaloblong blades from 5 to 9 inches long. The trees are at their greatest perfection at the age of ten to twelve years, but they continue to spread and send up new shoots. The bark may be easily distinguished from that of cinnamon, as it is thicker, coarser, darker, and duller, the flavour being more pungent, less sweet and delicate, and slightly bitter.

Chamomile German
  • Botanical: Matricaria recutita
  • Family: Asteraceae
  • Known as: Chamomile, Kamille, Matricaria chamomilla, German chamomile

Chamomile German

M. chamomilla has a branched, erect and smooth stem, which grows to a height of 15–60 cm (6-24inches). The long and narrow leaves are bipinnate or tripinnate.

The flowers are borne in paniculate flower heads (capitula). The white ray florets are furnished with a ligule, while the disc florets are yellow. The hollow receptacle is swollen and lacks scales. This property distinguishes German chamomile from corn chamomile (Anthemis arvensis), which has a receptacle with scales.

Chamomile Roman
  • Botanical: Chamaemelum nobile L.
  • Family: Asteraceae
  • Known as: Roman Chamomile, Kamille, Chamaemelum nobile

Chamomile Roman

Chamaemelum nobile has daisy-like white flowers and procumbent stems; the leaves are alternate, bipinnate, finely dissected, and downy to glabrous. The solitary, terminal flowerheads, rising 8-12 in above the ground, consist of prominent yellow disk flowers and silver-white ray flowers. The flowering time is June and July, and its fragrance is sweet, crisp, fruity and herbaceous.

Cinnamon
  • Botanical: Cinnamomum verum, Cinnamomum zeylanicum
  • Family: Lauraceae
  • Known as: Cinnamon, Zimt, Ceylon Zimt, Kanel
  • Old Use: culinary; medicinal
  • Aroma: oriental, spicy, sweet

Cinnamon

Cinnamomum verum trees are 10–15 metres (32.8–49.2 feet) tall. The leaves are ovate-oblong in shape, 7–18 cm (2.75–7.1 inches) long. The flowers, which are arranged in panicles, have a greenish color, and have a distinct odor. The fruit is a purple 1-cm drupe containing a single seed

Clove
  • Botanical: Syzygium aromaticum, Caryophyllus aromaticus
  • Family: Myrtaceae
  • Known as: Cloves, Gewürznelken, Negelken, Nägelein
  • Old Use: culinary; medicinal
  • Aroma: spicy, smoky, sweet

Clove

The clove tree is an evergreen that grows up to 8–12 m tall, with large leaves and sanguine flowers grouped in terminal clusters. The flower buds initially have a pale hue, gradually turn green, then transition to a bright red when ready for harvest. Cloves are harvested at 1.5–2.0 cm long, and consist of a long calyx that terminates in four spreading sepals, and four unopened petals that form a small central ball.