Recipes starting with P

  • Botanical: Carica papaya
  • Family: Caricaceae
  • Known as: Melonenbaum, Papaw, Pawpaw
  • Old Use: cooking aid and traditional medicine


The papaya is a large, tree-like plant, with a single stem growing from 5 to 10 m (16 to 33 ft) tall, with spirally arranged leaves confined to the top of the trunk. The lower trunk is conspicuously scarred where leaves and fruit were borne. The leaves are large, 50–70 cm (20–28 in) in diameter, deeply palmately lobed, with seven lobes. Unusually for such large plants, the trees are dioecious.

  • Botanical: Petroselinum crispum
  • Family: Apiaceae
  • Known as: Petroselinum hortense, Bittersilche, Bockskraut, Geilwurz, Grönte, Kräutel, Peterle, Peterling, Silk, Stehsalat
  • Old Use: culinary and medicinal use
  • Aroma: clean


Parsley is a bright green, biennial, plant in temperate climates, or an annual herb in subtropical and tropical areas.

Where it grows as a biennial, in the first year, it forms a rosette of tripinnate leaves 10–25 cm long with numerous 1–3 cm leaflets, and a taproot used as a food store over the winter. In the second year, it grows a flowering stem to 75 cm tall with sparser leaves and flat-topped 3–10 cm diameter umbels with numerous 2 mm diameter yellow to yellowish-green flowers.

  • Botanical: Arachis hypogaea
  • Family: Fabaceae
  • Known as: groundnut, earthnuts, ground nuts, goober peas, monkey nuts, pygmy nuts, pig nuts, Erdnuss, Aschantinuss, Arachisnuss, Kamerunnuss
  • Old Use: medical, culinary, industry
  • Aroma: oriental, woody


It is an annual herbaceous plant growing 30 to 50 cm (1.0 to 1.6 ft) tall. The leaves are opposite, pinnate with four leaflets (two opposite pairs; no terminal leaflet); each leaflet is 1 to 7 cm (⅜ to 2¾ in) long and 1 to 3 cm (⅜ to 1 inch) across. The flowers are a typical peaflower in shape, 2 to 4 cm (0.8 to 1.6 in) (¾ to 1½ in) across, yellow with reddish veining. The specific name, hypogaea means "under the earth"; after pollination, the flower stalk elongates, causing it to bend until the ovary touches the ground. Continued stalk growth then pushes the ovary underground where the mature fruit develops into a legume pod, the peanut – a classical example of geocarpy. Pods are 3 to 7 cm (1.2 to 2.8 in) long, containing 1 to 4 seeds.

  • Botanical: Anacyclus pyrethrum
  • Family: Asteraceae or Compositae
  • Known as: Spanish Chamomile, Mount Atlas Daisy, Mehrjähriger Bertram,
  • Old Use: medical


This perennial plant, in habit and appearance like the chamomile, has stems that lie on the ground for part of their length, before rising erect. Each bears one large flower, the disk being yellow and the rays white, tinged with purple beneath. The leaves are smooth, alternate, and pinnate, with deeply-cut segments.

The root is almost cylindrical, very slightly twisted and tapering and often crowned with a tuft of grey hairs. Externally it is brown and wrinkled, with bright black spots. The fracture is short, and the transverse section, magnified, presents a beautiful radiate structure and many oleoresin glands. The taste is pungent and odour slight.

Pepper Black
  • Botanical: Piper nigrum
  • Family: Piperaceae
  • Known as: Black pepper, Pfeffer
  • Old Use: cooking
  • Aroma: sharp, spicy

Pepper Black

Pepper plants are climbers which grow to a height or length of 10 m or more. When its main stem is established, it grows lots of side shoots to create a bushy column.

The plants form short roots, called adventitious roots, which connect to surrounding supports.

Although black pepper is cultivated in many tropical regions, it is native to Kerala State in India where it still occurs wild in the mountains.

  • Botanical: Mentha piperita
  • Family: Labiatae
  • Known as: Mint, Mentha arvensis, Mentha aquatica, Mentha X piperita, Aderminze, Balsam, Edelminze, Englische Minze, Gartenminze, Peperminte, Schmeckerts, Teeminze
  • Aroma: clean, fresh, minty, sweet


It is a herbaceous rhizomatous perennial plant growing to 30–90 cm (12–35 in) tall, with smooth stems, square in cross section. The rhizomes are wide-spreading, fleshy, and bare fibrous roots. The leaves are from 4–9 cm (1.6–3.5 in) long and 1.5–4 cm (0.59–1.57 in) broad, dark green with reddish veins, and with an acute apex and coarsely toothed margins. The leaves and stems are usually slightly fuzzy. The flowers are purple, 6–8 mm (0.24–0.31 in) long, with a four-lobed corolla about 5 mm (0.20 in) diameter; they are produced in whorls (verticillasters) around the stem, forming thick, blunt spikes.

Peru Balsam
  • Botanical: Myroxylon balsamum
  • Family: Fabaceae
  • Known as: Peru Balsam, Tolu Balsam, Myroxylon balsamum, Balsam of Tolu, Balsam of Peru, Myroxylon, Perubalsam, Balsambäume, Cabreúva, Cabreuva, Myrocarpus fastigiatus, Quina, Balsamo
  • Old Use: medicinal, culinary; flavoring
  • Aroma: balsamic, spicy, sweet, warm

Peru Balsam

The trees are large, growing to 40 metres (130 ft) tall, with evergreen pinnate leaves 15 centimetres (5.9 in) long, with 5–13 leaflets. The flowers are white with yellow stamens, produced in racemes. The fruit is a pod 7–11 centimetres (2.8–4.3 in) long, containing a single seed.

The wood is dark brown, with a deep red heartwood. Natural oils grant it excellent decay resistance. In fact, it is also resistant to preservative treatment. Its specific gravity is 0.74 to 0.81.

  • Botanical: Adonis vernalis
  • Family: Ranunculaceae
  • Known as: Spring Pheasant's Eye, Yellow Pheasant's Eye, False Hellebore, Frühlings Adonisröschen, Frühlings Adonis

Pheasants Eye

Adonis vernalis is a PERENNIAL growing to 0.3 m (1ft) by 0.3 m (1ft in).

It is in flower in March, and the seeds ripen from May to June. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, flies, beetles.The plant is self-fertile.

  • Botanical: Pimpinella saxifraga
  • Family: Apiaceae or Umbelliferae
  • Known as: Burnet-saxifrage, Kleine Bibernelle, Gemeine Bibernelle, Stein-Bibernelle, Steinbrechwurz, Steinpetersilie, Bockwurz, Pfefferkraut, Bumbernell
  • Old Use: medicine, culinary
  • Aroma: earthy

Pimpinella saxifraga

The root-stock is slender, the stem also slender, round, striate, 9 inches to 3 feet high. The root-leaves are numerous, shortly stalked, pinnate, the leaflets oval or roundish, four to eight pairs, sometimes so deeply cut as to be bipinnate, sometimes merely serrated. The stem-leaves are few, with the petiole dilated, particularly in the uppermost ones, the leaflets narrower than in the radical leaves, and pinnatifid. The upper leaves are reduced to dilated sheaths, the leaflets represented by one or more linear lobes. The umbels are regular, flattopped, the umbelules many-flowered, the individual flowers 1/10 inch across, white, with notched petals. The whole plant is dark green, generally glabrous.

Pine Dammar
  • Botanical: Agathis dammara
  • Family: Araucariaceae
  • Known as: Pine, Araucariaceae, Pine Dammar, Kauri, Conifer, Kauri-Bäume, Kaurifichten, Kaurikiefern

Pine Dammar

Trees to 60 m tall and 1.8 m dbh. Mature trees follow the usual Agathis model of a long clear bole with a broad emergent crown of large rigid first-order branches. The authorities differ in opinion about the bark, calling it gray, red-gray, light brown, or black, finely dimpled to thinly scaly or with many resin blisters, or rough, exfoliating thus with few epiphytes. Leaves sub-opposite, thick, coriaceous, light to dark green, highly variable even on a single tree. On young trees lanceolate, acuminate, 3x7 cm to 3.5x13 cm.

Pine Scotch
  • Botanical: Pinus sylvestris
  • Family: Pinaceae
  • Known as: Scots Pine, Pinus sylvestris, Schottische Kiefer, Kiefer, Gemeine Kiefer, Rotföhre, Weißkiefer, Forche
  • Old Use: culinary; medicinal
  • Aroma: balsamic, forest

Pine Scotch

Pinus sylvestris is an evergreen coniferous tree growing up to 35 m in height and 1 m trunk diameter when mature, exceptionally to 45 m tall and 1.7 m trunk diameter[citation needed] and on very productive sites (in Estonia, there are some 220-year-old trees that are 46 metres tall in the forests of Järvselja). The bark is thick, scaly dark grey-brown on the lower trunk, and thin, flaky and orange on the upper trunk and branches.

Poison Hemlock
  • Botanical: Conium maculatum
  • Family: Apiaceae
  • Known as: Conium chaerophylloides, Hemlock, Gefleckter Schierling,
  • Old Use: medical, industry

Poison Hemlock

It is a herbaceous biennial plant that grows between 1.5–2.5 metres (5–8 ft) tall, with a smooth green hollow stem, usually spotted or streaked with red or purple on the lower half of the stem. All parts of the plant are hairless (glabrous). The leaves are 2-4-pinnate, finely divided and lacy, overall triangular in shape, up to 50 centimetres (20 in) long and 40 centimetres (16 in) broad. The flowers are small, white, clustered in umbels up to 10–15 centimetres (4–6 in) across. When crushed, the leaves and root emit a rank, unpleasant odour often compared to that of parsnips. It produces a large number of seeds that allow the plant to form thick stands in modified soils.

  • Botanical: Punica granatum
  • Family: Lythraceae
  • Known as: Granatapfelbaum
  • Old Use: culinary; medicinal
  • Aroma: exotic, fruity, sweet


An attractive shrub or small tree, to 20 or 30 ft (6 or 10 m) high, the Pomegranate is much-branched, more or less spiny.

An extremely long-lived species, some specimens at Versailles are known to have survived two centuries. The leaves are evergreen or deciduous, opposite or in whorls of 5 or 6, short-stemmed, oblong-lanceolate, 3/8 to 4 in (1-10 cm) long and leathery. Showy flowers are home on the branch tips singly or as many as 5 in a cluster.

Poppy Corn
  • Botanical: Papaver rhoeas
  • Family: Papaveraceae
  • Known as: Common Poppy, Corn Poppy, Corn Rose, Field Poppy, Flanders Poppy, Red Poppy, Red Weed, Klatschmohn, Blutblume, Feldmohn, Feuerblume, Feuer-Mohn, Flattermohn, Klatschrose, Kornrose, Schnalle, Wolder Mohn
  • Old Use: cooking; medical

Poppy Corn

The plant is an annual herb which readily germinates from seeds. The branching stems have fine white or purple-red hair all along, especially at the flowering part. The flower stems are quite slender, and holds the solitary and terminal flowers. The bud is hanged upside down and then assumes a normal position just before blossoming. The stems have a white milky sap.

Poppy Opium
  • Botanical: Papaver somniferum
  • Family: Papaveraceae
  • Known as: White Poppy, Red Poppy, Opium Poppy, Schlafmohn
  • Old Use: treating asthma, stomach illnesses, and bad eyesight

Poppy Opium

The plant is an erect, herbaceous annual, varying much in the color of its flowers, as well as in the shape of the fruit and colour of the seeds. All parts of the plant, but particularly the walls of the capsules, or seed-vessels, contain a system of laticiferous vessels, filled with a white latex.


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