Carrier Oil

  • Botanical: Ricinus communis
  • Family: Euphorbiaceae
  • Known as: Castor Oil Plant, Ricinus communis, Castorbean,
  • Old Use: culinary; medicinal;


It is a fast-growing, suckering perennial shrub that can reach the size of a small tree (around 12 metres or 39 feet), but it is not cold hardy.

The glossy leaves are 15–45 centimetres (5.9–17.7 in) long, long-stalked, alternate and palmate with 5–12 deep lobes with coarsely toothed segments. In some varieties they start off dark reddish purple or bronze when young, gradually changing to a dark green, sometimes with a reddish tinge, as they mature.

  • Botanical: Brassica napus
  • Family: Brassicaceae
  • Known as: Rape, Brassica napus, Oilseed Rape, Rapa, Rappi, Rapaseed, Canola,
  • Aroma: fresh


The White Mustard is an erect annual, about a foot or more in height, with pinnatifid leaves and large, yellow, cruciferous flowers. It closely resembles the Black Mustard, but is smaller. The fruit of the two plants differs considerably in shape, those of the White Mustard being more or less horizontal and hairy, while Black Mustard pods are erect and smooth. The pods of White Mustard are spreading, roundish pods, ribbed and swollen where the seeds are situated, and provided with a very large flattened, swordshaped beak at the end.

  • Botanical: Rubus idaeus
  • Family: Rosaceae
  • Known as: Red Raspberry, Raspberry, and Wild Raspberry, Himbeere
  • Old Use: culinary; medicinal
  • Aroma: fruity, sweet, warm


The stems are erect and shrubby, biennial, with creeping perennial roots. Flowers: Royal purple or bluish pink, showy, fragrant, 1 to 2 in. broad, loosely clustered at top of stem. Calyx sticky-hairy, deeply 5-parted, with long, pointed tips; corolla of 5 rounded petals; stamens and pistils very numerous.

  • Botanical: Juglans nigra
  • Family: Juglandaceae
  • Known as: Walnut, Juglans, Juglans regia, Wallnuss, Wälsche Nuss, Welschnuss-Baum, Nussbaum, Christnuss, Steinnuss
  • Old Use: culinary; medicinal
  • Aroma: forest, earthy


The tree grows to a height of 40 or 60 feet, with a large spreading top, and thick, massive stem. One accurately measured by Professor du Breuil, in Normandy, was upwards of 23 feet in circumference; and in some parts of France there are Walnut trees 300 years old, with stems of much greater thickness. In the southern parts of England the trees grow vigorously and bear abundantly, when not injured by late frosts in spring.

Wheat Common
  • Botanical: Triticum aestivum
  • Family: Poaceae
  • Known as: Common wheat, Wheat, Triticum aestivum, Bread Wheat, Weichweizen, Brotweizen, Weizen
  • Old Use: culinary
  • Aroma: earthy

Wheat Common

An annual, largely hairless grass, producing a spike (flowering and fruiting part) on each of its 1–5 culms (stems). Height is variable, from about 1.2–1.5 m for 1930s cultivars to about 85 cm for most modern cultivars, with a simultaneous strengthening of the culm so as to bear the increased weight (resulting from the increased grain yield) of the spike. This has been achieved by incorporating dwarfing genes, from Japanese cultivar Norin 10, into most modern (post 1960s) varieties.

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