Herb

Cardamom
  • Botanical: Elettaria cardamomum
  • Family: Zingiberaceae
  • Known as: Elettaria cardamomum, Grüne Kardamom
  • Old Use: medicinal; culinary
  • Aroma: balsamic, spicy, sweet

Cardamom

The large perennial herb. yielding Cardamom seeds is known in its own country as 'Elattari' or 'Ilachi,' while 'Cardamomum' was the name by which some Indian spice was known in classical times.

Cassia
  • Botanical: Cinnamomum aromaticum
  • Family: Lauraceae
  • Known as: Cassia, Chinese cinnamon, Zimtkassie,
  • Old Use: culinary; medicinal
  • Aroma: oriental, spicy, sweet

Cassia

The cultivated trees are kept as coppices, and numerous shoots, which are not allowed to rise higher than 10 feet, spring from the roots. Their appearance when the flame-coloured leaves and delicate blossoms first appear is very beautiful. The fruit is about the size of a small olive. The leaves are evergreen, ovaloblong blades from 5 to 9 inches long. The trees are at their greatest perfection at the age of ten to twelve years, but they continue to spread and send up new shoots. The bark may be easily distinguished from that of cinnamon, as it is thicker, coarser, darker, and duller, the flavour being more pungent, less sweet and delicate, and slightly bitter.

Castor
  • Botanical: Ricinus communis
  • Family: Euphorbiaceae
  • Known as: Castor Oil Plant, Ricinus communis, Castorbean,
  • Old Use: culinary; medicinal;

Castor

It is a fast-growing, suckering perennial shrub that can reach the size of a small tree (around 12 metres or 39 feet), but it is not cold hardy.

The glossy leaves are 15–45 centimetres (5.9–17.7 in) long, long-stalked, alternate and palmate with 5–12 deep lobes with coarsely toothed segments. In some varieties they start off dark reddish purple or bronze when young, gradually changing to a dark green, sometimes with a reddish tinge, as they mature.

Cayenne Pepper
  • Botanical: Capsicum annuum
  • Family: Solanaceae
  • Known as: Capsicum frutescens, Capsicum chinense, Paprika, Peperoni, Pepperoni, Pfefferoni, Pfefferschoten, Chilli, Chillie, Chilie, Chile, Cayennepfeffer
  • Old Use: culinary, medicinal use

Cayenne Pepper

It is a shrubby perennial plant 2 to 6 feet high. Branches angular, usually enlarged and slightly purple at the nodes; petioles medium; peduncles slender, often in pairs, and longer than the fruit; calyx cup-shaped, clasping base of fruit which is red, ovate, and long; seeds small and flat, from ten to twenty-nine. The cuticle of the pericarp is uniformly striated and in this particular is distinct from other species.

 

Celandine
  • Botanical: Chelidonium majus
  • Family: Papaveraceae
  • Known as: Chelidonium, tetterwort, Schöllkraut
  • Old Use: bloodroot, wart weed

Celandine

Greater celandine is a perennial herb with an erect habit, and reaches 30 to 120 cm high. The leaves are pinnate with lobed and wavy-edged margins, 30 cm long. When injured, the plant exudes a yellow to orange latex. The flowers consist of four yellow petals, each about 1 cm long, with two sepals. A double-flowered variety occurs naturally. The flowers appear from late spring to summer in umbelliform cymes of about 4 flowers. The seeds are small and black, borne in a long capsule. Each has an elaiosome, which attracts ants to disperse the seeds (myrmecochory). It is considered an aggressive invasive plant in natural areas (both woods and fields). Control is obtained mainly via pulling or spraying the plant before seed dispersal.

Centaury European
  • Botanical: Centaurium erythraea
  • Family: Gentianaceae
  • Known as: common centaury, Echtes Tausendgüldenkraut
  • Old Use: medical, industry

Centaury European

This is an erect biennial herb which reaches half a meter in height. It grows from a small basal rosette and bolts a leafy, erect stem which may branch. The triangular leaves are arranged oppositely on the stem and the erect inflorescences emerge from the stem and grow parallel to it, sometimes tangling with the foliage. Each inflorescence may contain many flowers. The petite flower is pinkish-lavender and about a centimeter across, flat-faced with yellow anthers. The fruit is a cylindrical capsule.

Chamomile Corn
  • Botanical: Anthemis arvensis
  • Family: Asteraceae
  • Known as: Mayweed, Scentless Chamomile, Chamomile, Kamille, Matricaria chamomilla, German chamomile

Chamomile Corn

The whole plant is covered in short hairs. The leaves are finely divided with narrow, parallel-sided segments, pointed at the tips and have a pleasant, chamomile-like scent. The 'flowers', borne singly on stout stalks, are technically compound flower-heads made up of numerous small florets and resemble a Daisy. The central florets are yellow, while around the edge are the ray-florets, which have a single long white petal pointing outwards.

Chamomile German
  • Botanical: Matricaria recutita
  • Family: Asteraceae
  • Known as: Chamomile, Kamille, Matricaria chamomilla, German chamomile

Chamomile German

M. chamomilla has a branched, erect and smooth stem, which grows to a height of 15–60 cm (6-24inches). The long and narrow leaves are bipinnate or tripinnate.

The flowers are borne in paniculate flower heads (capitula). The white ray florets are furnished with a ligule, while the disc florets are yellow. The hollow receptacle is swollen and lacks scales. This property distinguishes German chamomile from corn chamomile (Anthemis arvensis), which has a receptacle with scales.

Chamomile Roman
  • Botanical: Chamaemelum nobile L.
  • Family: Asteraceae
  • Known as: Roman Chamomile, Kamille, Chamaemelum nobile

Chamomile Roman

Chamaemelum nobile has daisy-like white flowers and procumbent stems; the leaves are alternate, bipinnate, finely dissected, and downy to glabrous. The solitary, terminal flowerheads, rising 8-12 in above the ground, consist of prominent yellow disk flowers and silver-white ray flowers. The flowering time is June and July, and its fragrance is sweet, crisp, fruity and herbaceous.

Chamomile Stinking
  • Botanical: Anthemis cotula
  • Family: Asteraceae
  • Known as: Chamomile, Kamille, Matricaria chamomilla, German chamomile

Chamomile Stinking

Anthemis cotula is an annual glandular plant with a harsh taste and an acrid smell. Its height varies from 12 inches (28 centimeters) to 24 inches (56 centimeters).
The leaves of the plant sometimes have very fine and soft hairs on the upper surface, although the plant is mostly hairless. There is no leaf stalk; leaves grow immediately from the stems. The leaves are pinnate in shape, with many extremely thin lobes, and can be around 1 or 2 inches long (2.5 to 5 centimeters).

Chinese Rhubarb
  • Botanical: Rheum officinale
  • Family: Polygonaceae
  • Known as: yào yòng dà huáng, Essiac tea, Handlappiger Rhabarber, Handförmiger Rhabarber, Zier-Rhabarber, Kronrhabarberstaude, Tangutischer Rhabarber, Medizinal-Rhabarber, Arznei-Rhabarber, Chinesischer Rhabarber, Kanton-Rhabarber
  • Old Use: medical, culinary
  • Aroma: spicy

Chinese Rhubarb

Herbs large, 1.5-2 m tall. Rhizomes and roots stout. Stem stout, hollow, finely sulcate, with white hairs, especially above and at nodes. Petiole of basal leaf terete, ca. as long as blade or slightly shorter, pubescent; leaf blade orbicular, rarely broadly ovate, large, 30-50 cm in diam., or longer than wide, abaxially pubescent, adaxially glabrous, rarely pubescent along veins, basal veins 5-7, base subcordate; palmatilobate, apex subacute. Stem leaves smaller upward; ocrea large, to 15 cm, broad, outside with dense hairs. Panicles large; branches spreading. Pedicel 3-3.5 mm, slender, jointed below middle. Flowers 4- or 5-fascicled. Tepals 6, green to yellow-white, elliptic or narrowly elliptic, 2-2.5 × 1.2-1.5 mm. Stamens shorter than perianth. Style deflexed; stigma inflated. Fruit oblong-ellipsoid, 8-10 × 7-9 mm; wings ca. 3 mm wide, with longitudinal veins near margin. Seeds broadly ovoid.

Cinnamon
  • Botanical: Cinnamomum verum, Cinnamomum zeylanicum
  • Family: Lauraceae
  • Known as: Cinnamon, Zimt, Ceylon Zimt, Kanel
  • Old Use: culinary; medicinal
  • Aroma: oriental, spicy, sweet

Cinnamon

Cinnamomum verum trees are 10–15 metres (32.8–49.2 feet) tall. The leaves are ovate-oblong in shape, 7–18 cm (2.75–7.1 inches) long. The flowers, which are arranged in panicles, have a greenish color, and have a distinct odor. The fruit is a purple 1-cm drupe containing a single seed

Coltsfoot
  • Botanical: Tussilago farfara
  • Family: Asteraceae
  • Known as: Huflattich, Coltsfoot, Tussilago farfara, Horsehoof, Coughwort, Fieldhove, Bullsfoot, Cleats, Clayweed, Tusilago
  • Old Use: culinary; medicinal

Coltsfoot

Coltsfoot is a perennial herbaceous plant that spreads by seeds and rhizomes. Tussilago is often found in colonies of dozens of plants. The flowers, which superficially resemble dandelions, appear in early spring before dandelions appear. The leaves, which resemble a colt's foot in cross section, do not appear usually until after the seeds are set. Thus, the flowers appear on stems with no apparent leaves, and the later appearing leaves then wither and die during the season without seeming to set flowers. The plant is typically 10–30 cm in height.

Comfrey
  • Botanical: Symphytum officinale
  • Family: Boraginaceae
  • Known as: Arznei-Beinwell, Beinwurz, Bienenkraut, Echter Beinwell, Gemeiner Beinwell, Gemeine Wallwurz, Gewöhnlicher Beinwell, Glotwurzel, Grosse Wallwurz, Hasenbrot, Hasenlaub, Himmelsbrot, Honigblum, Komfrei, Kuchenkraut, Milchwurz, Schadheilwurzel, Schmalwurz
  • Old Use: medicinal

Comfrey

The leafy stem, 2 to 3 feet high, is stout, angular and hollow, broadly winged at the top and covered with bristly hairs. The lower, radical leaves are very large, up to 10 inches long, ovate in shape and covered with rough hairs which promote itching when touched. The stem-leaves are decurrent, i.e. a portion of them runs down the stem, the body of the leaf being continued beyond its base and point of attachment with the stem. They decrease in size the higher they grow up the stem, which is much branched above and terminated by one-sided clusters of drooping flowers, either creamy yellow, or purple, growing on short stalks.

Coriander
  • Botanical: Coriandrum sativum
  • Family: Apiaceae
  • Known as: Coriander, Koriander, Arabische Petersilie, Asiatische Petersilie, Chinesische Petersilie, Gartenkoriander, Gebauter Koriander, Gewürzkoriander, Indische Petersilie, Kaliander, Klanner, Schwindelkorn, Schwindelkraut, Stinkdill, Wandläusekraut, Wanzendill
  • Old Use: culinary; medicinal
  • Aroma: fruity, herbaceius, spicy, sweet, warm

Coriander

Coriander (Coriandrum sativum) is an annual herb in the family Apiaceae. Coriander is native to regions spanning from southern Europe and North Africa to southwestern Asia. It is a soft plant growing to 50 cm (20 in) tall. The leaves are variable in shape, broadly lobed at the base of the plant, and slender and feathery higher on the flowering stems.

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