Herb

Couch Grass
  • Botanical: Agropyron repens
  • Family: Poaceae
  • Known as: Elymus repens, twitch, quick grass, quitch grass, dog grass, quackgrass, scutch grass, and witchgrass, Kriech-Quecke, Gemeine Quecke, Gewöhnliche Quecke, einfach Quecke
  • Old Use: medical
  • Aroma: earthy

Couch Grass

Couch grass ( A. repens ) is a weed that is widely distributed throughout the northern hemisphere. The grass grows up to 1.5 m tall with spikes up to 15 cm long containing many flowered spikelets. The leaves alternate with sheaths, the blades are long and narrow, and the veins are parallel. The grass also possesses shiny, pale yellow, hollow rhizomes and longitudinally grooved stems that are 2 to 3 mm thick. Thin roots and short fiber-like cataphylls are present at the unthickened nodes. Couch grass has an almost bland but slightly sweet taste. The rhizomes, roots, and stems are used to formulate the product. 

Cubeb
  • Botanical: Piper cubeba
  • Family: Piperaceae
  • Known as: Tailed Pepper, Shital Chini, Kabab Chini, Java Pepper, Kubeben Pfeffer, Schwanz Pfeffer

Cubeb

Cubeb (Piper cubeba) is a plant in genus Piper, cultivated for its fruit and essential oil.

The fruits are gathered before they are ripe, and carefully dried.

Commercial cubebs consist of the dried berries, similar in appearance to black pepper, but with stalks attached – the "tails" in "tailed pepper".

The dried pericarp is wrinkled, and its color ranges from grayish-brown to black.

The seed is hard, white and oily. 

Cumin
  • Botanical: Cuminum cyminum
  • Family: Apiaceae
  • Known as: Cumin Acre, Sweet Cumin, Anise Acre.
  • Old Use: culinary; medicinal
  • Aroma: balsamic, spicy

Cumin

Its stem is slender and branched, rarely exceeding 1 foot in height and somewhat angular. The leaves are divided into long, narrow segments like Fennel, but much smaller and are of a deep green colour, generally turned back at the ends. The upper leaves are nearly stalkless, but the lower ones have longer leaf-stalks.

Dandelion
  • Botanical: Taraxacum officinale
  • Family: Asteraceae
  • Known as: Löwenzahn, Gemeiner Löwenzahn,
  • Old Use: culinary; medicinal

Dandelion

Taraxacum officinale grows from generally unbranched taproots and produces one to more than ten stems that are typically 5 to 40 cm tall, but sometimes up to 70 cm tall. The stems can be tinted purplish, they are upright or lax, and produce flower heads that are held as tall or taller than the foliage. The foliage may be upright-growing or horizontally spreading; the leaves have petioles that are either unwinged or narrowly winged.

Dragons Blood
  • Botanical: Calamus draco
  • Family: Palmaceae
  • Known as: Calamus Draco. Draconis Resina. Sanguis draconis. Dragon's Blood Palm. Blume.
  • Old Use: medical, industry
  • Aroma: sweet

Dragons Blood

-Dragon's Blood, as known in commerce, has several origins, the substance so named being contributed by widely differing species. Probably the best known is that from Sumatra. Daemomorops Draco formerly known as Calamus Draco, was transferred with many others of the species to Daemomorops, the chief distinguishing mark being the placing of the flowers along the branches instead of their being gathered into catkins, as in those remaining under Calamus. The long, slender stems of the genus are flexible, and the older trees develop climbing propensities. The leaves have prickly stalks which often grow into long tails and the bark is provided with many hundreds of flattened spines. The berries are about the size of a cherry, and pointed. When ripe they are covered with a reddish, resinous substance which is separated in several ways, the most satisfactory being by steaming, or by shaking or rubbing in coarse, canvas bags. An inferior kind is obtained by boiling the fruits to obtain a decoction after they have undergone the second process. The product may come to market in beads, joined as if forming a necklace, and covered with leaves (Tear Dragon's Blood), or in small, round sticks about 18 inches long, packed in leaves and strips of cane. Other varieties are found in irregular lumps, or in a reddish powder. They are known as lump, stick, reed, tear, or saucer Dragon's Blood.

Elder
  • Botanical: Sambucus nigra
  • Family: Adoxaceae
  • Known as: Holler, Hollunder, Schwarzer Holunder, Flieder,
  • Aroma: clean, citrus, floral, fresh, fruity

Elder

It is a deciduous shrub or small tree growing to 6 m (20 ft) tall and wide (rarely 10m tall). The bark, light grey when young, changes to a coarse grey outer bark with lengthwise furrowing. The leaves are arranged in opposite pairs, 10–30 cm long, pinnate with five to seven (rarely nine) leaflets, the leaflets 5–12 cm long and 3–5 cm broad, with a serrated margin.

Fennel
  • Botanical: Foeniculum vulgare
  • Family: Apiaceae
  • Known as: Fennel, Foeniculum vulgare, Brotsamen, Enis, Femis, Fenikl, Fenis, Fenkel, Finchel, Frauenfenchel
  • Old Use: medicinal; culinary
  • Aroma: spicy, sweet

Fennel

Fennel, Foeniculum vulgare, is a perennial herb. It is erect, glaucous green, and grows to heights of up to 2.5 m, with hollow stems. The leaves grow up to 40 cm long; they are finely dissected, with the ultimate segments filiform (threadlike), about 0.5 mm wide. (Its leaves are similar to those of dill, but thinner.) The flowers are produced in terminal compound umbels 5–15 cm wide, each umbel section having 20–50 tiny yellow flowers on short pedicels.

Fenugreek
  • Botanical: Trigonella foenum graecum
  • Family: Leguminosae
  • Known as: Bockshornklee
  • Old Use: medical, industry, culinary
  • Aroma: sharp

Fenugreek

Fenugreek is an annual, leguminous plant. It has tri-foliate, obovate and toothed, light green leaves. Its stems are erect, long and tender. Blooming period occurs during summer. Flowers are yellow-white, occurring singly or in pairs at the leaf axils. Fruit is a curved seed-pod, with ten to twenty flat and hard, yellowish-brown seeds. They are angular- rhomboid, oblong or even cubic, and have a deep furrow dividing them into two unequal lobes.

Fern
  • Botanical: Dryopteris filix
  • Family: Dryopteridaceae
  • Known as: Dryopteris filix-mas

Fern

The semi-evergreen leaves have an upright habit and reach a maximum length of 150 cm (59 in), with a single crown on each rootstock. The bipinnate leaves consist of 20-35 pinnae on each side of the rachis. The leaves taper at both ends, with the basal pinnae about half the length of the middle pinnae.

Flax
  • Botanical: Linum usitatissimum
  • Family: Linaceae
  • Known as: Flax, Flax Seed, Faserlein, Flachs, Flachsbeere, Flas, Flax, Gemeiner Lein, Glix, Haarlinsen, Lein, Leinbleaml, Leinsamen, Öl-Lein, Saat-Lein
  • Old Use: culinary; medicinal
  • Aroma: herbaceius

Flax

Flax, Linum usitatissimum, is an upright annual plant growing to 1.2 m (3 ft 11 in) tall, with slender stems. The leaves are glaucous green, slender lanceolate, 20–40 mm long and 3 mm broad.

The flowers are pure pale blue, 15–25 mm diameter, with five petals; they can also be bright red. The fruit is a round, dry capsule 5–9 mm diameter, containing several glossy brown seeds shaped like an apple pip, 4–7 mm long.

Fool's parsley
  • Botanical: Aethusa cynapium
  • Family: Apiaceae
  • Known as: poison parsley, Hundspetersilie,
  • Old Use: medical, culinary

Fool's parsley

It has a fusiform root and a smooth hollow branched stem growing to about 80 cm high, with much divided (ternately pinnate) smooth leaves with an unpleasant smell, and small compound umbels of small irregular white flowers.

Foxglove Purple
  • Botanical: Digitalis purpurea
  • Family: Scrophulariaceae
  • Known as: Roter Fingerhut, Fingerhut, Fingerkraut, Fuchskraut, Schwulstkraut, Unserer-lieben-Frauen-Handschuh, Waldglöckchen, Waldschelle
  • Old Use: medical, industry
  • Aroma: spicy

Foxglove Purple

Digitalis purpurea is an herbaceous biennial or short-lived perennial plant. The leaves are spirally arranged, simple, 10–35 cm long and 5–12 cm broad, and are covered with gray-white pubescent and glandular hairs, imparting a woolly texture. The foliage forms a tight rosette at ground level in the first year. The flowering stem develops in the second year, typically 1 to 2 m tall, sometimes longer. The flowers are arranged in a showy, terminal, elongated cluster, and each flower is tubular and pendent. The flowers are typically purple, but some plants, especially those under cultivation, may be pink, rose, yellow, or white. The inside surface of the flower tube is heavily spotted. The flowering period is early summer, sometimes with additional flower stems developing later in the season. The plant is frequented by bees, which climb right inside the flower tube to gain the nectar within. The fruit is a capsule which splits open at maturity to release the numerous tiny (0.1-0.2 mm) seeds.

Frankincense
  • Botanical: Boswellia Serrata
  • Family: Burseraceae
  • Known as: Olibanum, Weihrauch, Salai, Boswellia carteri, frankincense
  • Old Use: medicinal; culinary
  • Aroma: earthy, smoky, woody

Frankincense

Obtained from the leafy forest tree Boswellia Thurifera, with leaves deciduous, alternate towards the tops of branches, unequally pinnated; leaflets in about ten pairs with an odd one opposite, oblong, obtuse, serrated, pubescent, sometimes alternate; petioles short.

Flowers, white or pale rose on short pedicels in single axillary racemes shorter than the leaves. Calyx, small five-toothed, persistent; corolla with five obovate-oblong, very patent petals, acute at the base, inserted under the margin of the disk, acstivation slightly imbricative. Stamens, ten, inserted under the disk, alternately shorter; filaments subulate, persistent.

Gambier
  • Botanical: Uncaria gambir
  • Family: Rubiaceae
  • Known as: cutch, black cutch, cachou, cashoo, khoyer, terra Japonica, or Japan earth, and also katha in Hindi, kaath in Marathi, khoyer in Assamese and Bengali, and kachu in Malay
  • Old Use: medicine, industry

Gambier

Woody lianas; climbing by hooks formed from reduced, modified branches. Stipules entire or bifid. Inflorescence a compact head, terminal, at the ends of plagiotropic branches and their very reduced branches. Corolla lobes without appendages. Seeds with a long wing at each end, the lower wing deeply bifid.

Garden Angelica
  • Botanical: Angelica archangelica
  • Family: Umbelliferae
  • Known as: Holy Ghost, Wild Celery, Norwegian Angelica, Arznei-Engelwurz, Echte Engelwurz
  • Old Use: medical, induatry

Garden Angelica

The roots of the Common Angelica are long and spindle-shaped, thick and fleshy - large specimens weighing sometimes as much as three pounds - and are beset with many long, descending rootlets. The stems are stout fluted, 4 to 6 feet high and hollow. The foliage is bold and pleasing, the leaves are on long stout, hollow footstalks, often 3 feet in length, reddish purple at the much dilated, clasping bases; the blades, of a bright green colour, are much cut into, being composed of numerous small leaflets, divided into three principal groups, each of which is again subdivided into three lesser groups. The edges of the leaflets are finely toothed or serrated. The flowers, small and numerous, yellowish or greenish in colour, are grouped into large, globular umbels. They blossom in July and are succeeded by pale yellow, oblong fruits, 1/6 to a 1/4 inch in length when ripe, with membraneous edges, flattened on one side and convex on the other, which bears three prominent ribs. Both the odour and taste of the fruits are pleasantly aromatic.

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