Herb

Lesser Butterfly Orchid
  • Botanical: Platanthera bifolia
  • Family: Orchidaceae
  • Known as: Zweiblättrige Waldhyazinthe, Weiß-Waldhyazinthe, Weiße Waldhyazinthe
  • Old Use: culinary, medical
  • Aroma: sharp, sweet

Lesser Butterfly Orchid

Lesser butterfly-orchids are not to be confused with the greater butterfly-orchid, which are about the same size. Lesser butterfly-orchids are distinguished by their two shining green basal leaves, especially of the hill form, which are shorter and broader and by the angle of the pollinia.The upper sepal and petals form a loose triangular hood above the pollinia, which lie parallel and close together, obscuring the opening into the spur, which is long and almost straight. There are usually around 25 white flowers tinged with yellow-green in a slim flower spike. The flowers are night-scented, but the chemical components of the scent are different from those of greater butterfly-orchid and attract different pollinators.

Lesser Galangal
  • Botanical: Alpinia officinarum
  • Family: Zingaberaceae or Scilaminae
  • Known as: Languas officinarum, Echter Galgant, Galgantwurzel, Kleiner Galgant, Galgant, Siam Galgant
  • Old Use: medical

Lesser Galangal

This herbaceous plant can grow up to ten feet in height, though three to five feet is more common. The leaves are lanceolate (long and thin), and the flowers are white with streaks of red, growing from a spike at the top. The plant's rhizomes, the part known as galangal, are thin and tough, and they are the principal reason the plant is cultivated. They have orange flesh with a brown coating, and have an aromatic odor and a pungent flavor. These are smaller than greater galangal.

Liquorice
  • Botanical: Glycyrrhiza glabra
  • Family: Fabaceae
  • Known as: Licorice, Lakritze, Süßholz
  • Old Use: medical, culinary, industry
  • Aroma: sweet

Liquorice

It is a herbaceous perennial, growing to 1 m in height, with pinnate leaves about 7–15 cm (3–6 in) long, with 9–17 leaflets. The flowers are 0.8–1.2 cm (1/3 to 1/2 in) long, purple to pale whitish blue, produced in a loose inflorescence. The fruit is an oblong pod, 2–3 cm (1 in) long, containing several seeds. The roots are stoloniferous.

Lovage
  • Botanical: Levisticum officinale
  • Family: Apiaceae or Umbelliferae
  • Known as: Liebstöckel, Maggikraut, Luststock, Nusskraut
  • Old Use: medical, industry, culinary

Lovage

Lovage is an erect, herbaceous, perennial plant growing to 1.8–2.5 m tall, with a basal rosette of leaves and stems with further leaves, the flowers being produced in umbels at the top of the stems. The stems and leaves are shiny glabrous green to yellow-green and smell of lime when crushed. The larger basal leaves are up to 70 cm long, tripinnate, with broad triangular to rhomboidal, acutely pointed leaflets with a few marginal teeth; the stem leaves are smaller, and less divided with few leaflets. The flowers are yellow to greenish-yellow, 2–3 mm diameter, produced in globose umbels up to 10–15 cm diameter; flowering is in late spring. The fruit is a dry two-parted schizocarp 4–7 mm long, mature in autumn.

Love in a Mist
  • Botanical: Nigella damascena
  • Family: Ranunculaceae
  • Known as: Ragged Lady, Jungfer im Grünen
  • Old Use: medicinal, culinary
  • Aroma: spicy

Love in a Mist

Nigella damascena (love-in-a-mist, ragged lady) is an annual garden flowering plant, belonging to the buttercup family Ranunculaceae.

It grows to 20–50 cm (8–20 in) tall, with pinnately divided, thread-like, alternate leaves.

The flowers, blooming in early summer, are most commonly different shades of blue, but can be white, pink, or pale purple, with 5 to 25 sepals. The actual petals are located at the base of the stamens and are minute and clawed. The sepals are the only colored part of the perianth. The four to five carpels of the compound pistil have each an erect style.

The fruit is a large and inflated capsule, growing from a compound ovary, and is composed of several united follicles, each containing numerous seeds. This is rather exceptional for a member of the buttercup family. The capsule becomes brown in late summer. The plant self-seeds, growing on the same spot year after year.

Malva
  • Botanical: Malva sylvestris
  • Family: Malvaceae
  • Known as: Mallow, High Mallow, Malva, Malve, Käsepappel, Gänsepappel, Kasköpfe, Käslein, Katzenkrallen, Krallenblumen, Pappeln, Schafkas, Schwellkraut
  • Old Use: medicinal
  • Aroma: earthy, herbaceius

Malva

Malva sylvestris is a spreading herb, which is an annual in North Africa, biennial in the Mediterranean and a perennial elsewhere. Three feet (one meter) tall, (3 meters has been observed in a wild or escaped from cultivation setting, and several cultivated plants of 2 meter or more in height) with a growth habit which can be straight or decumbent, branched and covered with fine soft hairs or none at all, M. sylvestris is pleasing in appearance when it first starts to flower, but as the summer advances, "the leaves lose their deep green color and the stems assume a ragged appearance".

  • Botanical: Piper aduncum
  • Family: Piperaceae
  • Known as: Higuillo de hoja menuda, Gebogener Pfeffer
  • Old Use: medical, culinary
  • Aroma: spicy

Matico

Matico is a tropical, evergreen, shrubby tree that grows to the height of 6 to 7 meter (20 to 23 ft) with lance-shaped leaves that are 12 to 20 centimeter (5 to 8 in) long. 

Mayapple
  • Botanical: Podophyllum peltatum
  • Family: Berberidaceae
  • Known as: hogapple, Indian apple, mayflower, umbrella plant, wild lemon, wild mandrake, American mandrake, devil's apple, Schildförmiges Fußblatt, Maiapfel, Entenfuß, Amerikanischer Maiapfel
  • Old Use: medical
  • Aroma: exotic

Mayapple

Mayapples are woodland plants, typically growing in colonies derived from a single root. The stems grow to 30–40 cm tall, with palmately lobed umbrella-like leaves up to 20–40 cm diameter with 3–9 shallowly to deeply cut lobes. The plants produce several stems from a creeping underground rhizome; some stems bear a single leaf and do not produce any flower or fruit, while flowering stems produce a pair or more leaves with 1–8 flowers in the axil between the apical leaves. The flowers are white, yellow or red, 2–6 cm diameter with 6–9 petals, and mature into a green, yellow or red fleshy fruit 2–5 cm long.

Melissa
  • Botanical: Melissa officinalis
  • Family: Lamiaceae
  • Known as: Zitronenmelisse, Melissa, Lemon balm, melissa_officinalis
  • Old Use: culinary; medicinal

Melissa

Melissa Officinalis is a perennial herb from the Lamiaceae (mint) family, which just happens to be the same family as Salvia Divinorum. This herb can grow to be 3 feet (1 meter) tall, and 3 feet (1 meter) wide. The leaves are fuzzy with many tiny hairs, they vary in shape from oblong oval to a heart shape and all have a jagged toothed edge.

Mezereon
  • Botanical: Daphne mezereum
  • Family: Thymelaeaceae
  • Known as: February daphne, mezereon, mezereum, spurge laurel or spurge olive
  • Old Use: medical, industry

Mezereon

It is a deciduous shrub growing to 1.5 m tall. The leaves are soft, 3–8 cm long and 1–2 cm broad, arranged spirally on the stems. The flowers are produced in early spring on the bare stems before the leaves appear. They have a four-lobed pink or light purple (rarely white) perianth 10–15 mm diameter, and are strongly scented. The fruit is a bright red berry 7–12 mm diameter; it is very poisonous for people, though fruit-eating birds like thrushes are immune and eat them, dispersing the seeds in their droppings.

Military Orchid
  • Botanical: Orchis militaris
  • Family: Orchidaceae
  • Known as: Helm-Knabenkraut, Salep. Saloop. Sahlep. Satyrion. Levant Salep.
  • Old Use: medical
  • Aroma: sweet

Military Orchid

This plant grows to a height of 20 to 50 cm with a robust stem with rather drawn up oblong basal leaves. The inflorescence forms a purplish dense cone consisting of from 10 to 40 flowers. In each flower the sepals and side petals are gathered together to form a pointed "helmet" (whence it gets its name), a lilac colour outside and a veined purple colour inside. The central tongue finishes in two lobes separated by a tooth.

Monkshood
  • Botanical: Aconitum napellus
  • Family: Ranunculaceae
  • Known as: aconite, wolfsbane, fuzi, monk's blood
  • Old Use: In Chinese medicine processed aconite was used to treat heart failure and other heart diseases.

Monkshood

It is an herbaceous perennial plant growing to 1 m tall, with hairless stems and leaves. The leaves are rounded, 5–10 cm diameter, palmately divided into five to seven deeply lobed segments. The flowers are dark purple to bluish-purple, narrow oblong helmet-shaped, 1–2 cm tall.

Mullein Orange
  • Botanical: Verbascum phlomoides
  • Family: Scrophulariaceae
  • Known as: Verbascum thapsiforme, Königskerze

Mullein Orange

They are biennial or perennial plants, rarely annuals or subshrubs, growing to 0.5–3 m tall. The plants first form a dense rosette of leaves at ground level, subsequently sending up a tall flowering stem. Biennial plants form the rosette the first year and the stem the following season. The leaves are spirally arranged, often densely hairy, though glabrous (hairless) in some species. The flowers have five symmetrical petals; petal colours in different species include yellow (most common), orange, red-brown, purple, blue, or white. The fruit is a capsule containing numerous minute seeds.

Parsley
  • Botanical: Petroselinum crispum
  • Family: Apiaceae
  • Known as: Petroselinum hortense, Bittersilche, Bockskraut, Geilwurz, Grönte, Kräutel, Peterle, Peterling, Silk, Stehsalat
  • Old Use: culinary and medicinal use
  • Aroma: clean

Parsley

Parsley is a bright green, biennial, plant in temperate climates, or an annual herb in subtropical and tropical areas.

Where it grows as a biennial, in the first year, it forms a rosette of tripinnate leaves 10–25 cm long with numerous 1–3 cm leaflets, and a taproot used as a food store over the winter. In the second year, it grows a flowering stem to 75 cm tall with sparser leaves and flat-topped 3–10 cm diameter umbels with numerous 2 mm diameter yellow to yellowish-green flowers.

Peanut
  • Botanical: Arachis hypogaea
  • Family: Fabaceae
  • Known as: groundnut, earthnuts, ground nuts, goober peas, monkey nuts, pygmy nuts, pig nuts, Erdnuss, Aschantinuss, Arachisnuss, Kamerunnuss
  • Old Use: medical, culinary, industry
  • Aroma: oriental, woody

Peanut

It is an annual herbaceous plant growing 30 to 50 cm (1.0 to 1.6 ft) tall. The leaves are opposite, pinnate with four leaflets (two opposite pairs; no terminal leaflet); each leaflet is 1 to 7 cm (⅜ to 2¾ in) long and 1 to 3 cm (⅜ to 1 inch) across. The flowers are a typical peaflower in shape, 2 to 4 cm (0.8 to 1.6 in) (¾ to 1½ in) across, yellow with reddish veining. The specific name, hypogaea means "under the earth"; after pollination, the flower stalk elongates, causing it to bend until the ovary touches the ground. Continued stalk growth then pushes the ovary underground where the mature fruit develops into a legume pod, the peanut – a classical example of geocarpy. Pods are 3 to 7 cm (1.2 to 2.8 in) long, containing 1 to 4 seeds.

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