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Herb | Plant Lexica

Herb

Senega Snakeroot
  • Botanical: Polygala senega
  • Family: Polygalaceae
  • Known as: Senega Snakeroot, Senegaroot, Rattlesnake root, Mountain flax,
  • Old Use: medical

Senega Snakeroot

This species is a perennial herb with multiple stems up to 50 centimeters tall. The stems are usually unbranched, but some old plants can have branching stems. A mature plant can have up to 70 stems growing from a hard, woody rootstock that spreads horizontally. The lance-shaped leaves are alternately arranged. The lower leaves are reduced and scale-like. The inflorescence is a spike of rounded white or greenish flowers. The fruit is a capsule containing two hairy black seeds. The root is twisted and conical, with a scent somewhat like wintergreen and a very pungent taste. There are two root morphs; a northern morph growing in Canada and toward Minnesota has larger roots up to 15 centimeters long by 1.2 wide which are dark brown and sometimes purplish toward the top, and a southern morph found in the southeastern United States that has smaller, yellow-brown roots.

Sesame
  • Botanical: Sesamum orientale
  • Family: Pedaliacae
  • Known as: Sesam
  • Old Use: medical, culinary, industry

Sesame

Sesamum indicum is an annual plant, with an erect, pubescent, branching stem, 2 to 4 feet in height. The leaves are ovate-lanceolate, or oblong; the lower ones trilobed and sometimes ternate; the upper undivided, irregularly serrate and pointed. The flowers are of a pale-purple color, axillary, and borne on short glandular pedicels. The fruit is an oblong, mucronate, pubescent capsule, containing numerous small, oval, yellowish seeds

Spearmint
  • Botanical: Mentha spicata
  • Family: Lamiaceae
  • Known as: Spear Mint, Langblättrige Minze, Rossminze, Ross-Minze, Ährige Minze, Speer-Minze
  • Old Use: culinary; medicinal
  • Aroma: fresh, minty

Spearmint

It is a herbaceous rhizomatous perennial plant growing 30–100 cm tall, with variably hairless to hairy stems and foliage, and a wide-spreading fleshy underground rhizome. The leaves are 5–9 cm long and 1.5–3 cm broad, with a serrated margin. The stem is square-shaped, a trademark of the mint family of herbs. Spearmint produces flowers in slender spikes, each flower pink or white, 2.5–3 mm long and broad.

Strophanthus
  • Botanical: Strophanthus hispidus
  • Family: Apocynaceae
  • Known as: Strophanthus,
  • Old Use: medical
  • Aroma: spicy

Strophanthus

The name Strophanthus is derived from the Greek strophos (a twisted cord or rope) and anthos (a flower), thus expressing the chief peculiarity of its appearance, the limb of the corolla being divided into five, long, tail-like segments. The official description of the seeds is 'lance-ovoid, flattened and obtusely-edged; from 7 to 20 mm. in length, about 4 mm. in breadth, and about 2 mm. in thickness; externally of a light fawn colour with a distinct greenish tinge, silky lustrous form, a dense coating of flat-lying hairs (S. Kombé) or light to dark brown, nearly smooth, and sparingly hairy (S. hispidus), bearing on one side a ridge running from about the centre to the summit; fracture short and somewhat soft, the fractured surface whitish and oily; odour heavy when the seeds are crushed and moistened; taste very bitter.

Sugarcane
  • Botanical: Saccharum officinarum
  • Family: Poaceae
  • Known as: Zuckerrohr, cane beetle, cane grub
  • Old Use: medical, culinary, industry
  • Aroma: sweet

Sugarcane

S. officinarum, a perennial plant, grows in clumps consisting of a number of strong unbranched stems. A network of rhizomes forms under the soil which sends up secondary shoots near the parent plant. The stems vary in colour, being green, pinkish, or purple and can reach 5 m (16 ft) in height. They are jointed, nodes being present at the bases of the alternate leaves. The internodes contain a fibrous white pith immersed in sugary sap. The elongated, linear, green leaves have thick midribs and saw-toothed edges and grow to a length of about 30 to 60 cm (12 to 24 in) and width of 5 cm (2.0 in). The terminal inflorescence is a panicle up to 60 cm (24 in) long, a pinkish plume that is broadest at the base and tapering towards the top. The spikelets are borne on side branches and are about 3 mm (0.12 in) long and are concealed in tufts of long, silky hair. The fruits are dry and each one contains a single seed. Sugarcane harvest typically occurs before the plants flower, as the flowering process causes a reduction in sugar content.

Sweet Iris
  • Botanical: Iris pallida
  • Family: Iridaceae
  • Known as: Dalmatian iris, Bleiche Schwertlilie, Dalmatinische Iris
  • Old Use: medical
  • Aroma: floral

Sweet Iris

This iris prefers rocky places in the mediterranean and submediterranean zone and reaches sometimes montane regions at its southern range in Montenegro. It grows to a stem height of 50 to 80 centimeters. The leaves are bluish-green in color, and sword-shaped, 40 to 50 centimeters in length, and 2.5 to 3 centimeters in width. The inflorescence, produced in May/June, is fan-shaped and contains two or three flowers which are usually pale purplish to whitish.

Tea
  • Botanical: Camellia sinensis
  • Family: Theaceae
  • Known as: Black Tea, Schwarztee
  • Old Use: culinary, medicinal use

Tea

A small evergreen shrub cultivated to a height of 7 to 8 feet, but growing wild up to 30 feet high, much branched. Bark rough, grey. Leaves dark green, lanceolate or elliptical, on short stalks, blunt at apex, base tapering, margins shortly serrate, young leaves hairy, older leaves glabrous.

Thyme
  • Botanical: Thymus vulgaris
  • Family: Lamiaceae
  • Known as: Thyme, Thymus vulgaris, Thymiane, Quendel, Feld-Thymian, Sand-Thymian, Betony, Feldbulla, Feldkümmel, Feldpoley, Geismajoran, Geschwulstkraut, Grundling, Hollaien, Hühnerbolle, Immenkraut, Keale, Kinderkraut, Kounala, Kranzlkraut, Kudelkraut, Kückenkümmel
  • Old Use: culinary; medicinal
  • Aroma: herbaceius, spicy, warm

Thyme

Thymus is a perennial low aromatic shrub with much-branched woody stems forming dense tufts from which arise tiny, paired opposite leaves on short stalks, each with two minute leaflets at the base. The leaves are 6-8mm long, the underside covered with fine hairs. The flowers are arranged in whorls in the axils of the upper leaves, and are of a typical labiate appearance, pink to lilac in colour.

Tobacco Aztec
  • Botanical: Nicotiana rustica
  • Family: Solanaceae
  • Known as: tabak, lobelia, bladderpod, emetic herb, emetic weed, gagroot, vomitroot, vomitwort, pukeweed, wild tobacco, asthma weed, bladderpod, eyebright
  • Old Use: medicinal and spiritual
  • Aroma: sharp

Tobacco Aztec

Nicotiana rustica is a annual growing to 1.5 m (5ft). It is hardy to zone 8 and is frost tender. It is in flower from Jul to September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs).

Flower petal is green to brown yellow; leaves are simple (lobed or unlobed but not separated into leaflets) arranged alternatively: there is one leaf per node along the stem. Its leaves are wider and rounder than some of our other tobacco species, and the tubular, yellowish flowers are shorter.

Tobacco Cultivated
  • Botanical: Nicotiana tabacum
  • Family: Solanaceae
  • Known as: bright tobacco
  • Old Use: smoking

Tobacco Cultivated

Nicotiana tabacum is a annual growing to 1.2m. It is hardy to zone 8 and is frost tender. It is in flower from Jul to September, and the seeds ripen from Aug to October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, lepidoptera.

The ovate to lanceolate leaves are alternate, spiraling around the stem, and often large—in many varieties, 0.6 to 1.0 m (2 to 3 ft) long and half as wide.

Tobacco Indian
  • Botanical: Lobelia inflata
  • Family: Lobelioideae
  • Known as: tabak, lobelia, bladderpod, emetic herb, emetic weed, gagroot, vomitroot, vomitwort, pukeweed, wild tobacco, asthma weed, bladderpod, eyebright
  • Old Use: medicinal
  • Aroma: warm

Tobacco Indian

It is an annual or biennial herbaceous plant growing to 15–100 centimetres (5.9–39.4 in) tall, with stems covered in tiny hairs. Its leaves are usually about 8 centimetres (3.1 in) long, and are ovate and toothed. It has violet flowers that are tinted yellow on the inside, and usually appear in mid-summer and continue to bloom into fall

Tormentil
  • Botanical: Potentilla erecta
  • Family: Rosaceae
  • Known as: Septfoil, Blutwurz, Dilledapp, Durmentill, Natterwurz, Rotwurz, Ruhrwurz, Siebenfinger, Tormentill
  • Old Use: medicine, culinary, industry

Tormentil

Potentilla erecta is a low, clump-forming plant with slender, procumbent to arcuately upright stalks, growing 10–30 centimetres (3.9–11.8 in) tall and with non-rooting runners. It grows wild predominantly in Scandinavia, Europe, and western Asia mostly on acid soils in a wide variety of habitats, such as mountains, heaths, meadows, sandy soils and dunes.This plant is flowering from May to August/September. There is one yellow, 7–11 millimetres (0.28–0.43 in) wide flower, growing at the tip of a long stalk. There are almost always four notched petals, each with a length between 3 and 6 mm. Four petals are rather uncommon in the rose family. The petals are somewhat longer than the sepals. There are 20–25 stamens. The radical leaves have a long petiole, while the leaves on the flowering stalks are usually sessile or with short petioles. The glossy leaves are alternate, ternate, consisting of three obovate leaflets with serrate margins. The paired stipules are leaflike and palmately lobed. There are 2–8 dry, inedible fruits.

Valerian
  • Botanical: Valeriana officinalis
  • Family: Valerianaceae
  • Known as: Valeriana officinalis, Garden Valerian, Echter Arznei-Baldrian,Katzenkraut, Stinkwurz, Hexenkraut, Augenwurzel, Mondwurz, Bullerjan, Tolljan, Katzenwargel
  • Aroma: minty, spicy

Valerian

The roots tend to merge into a short, conical root-stock or erect rhizome, the development of which often proceeds for several years before a flowering stem is sent up, but slender horizontal branches which terminate in buds are given off earlier, and from these buds proceed aerial shoots or stolons, which produce fresh plants where they take root.

Vermouth
  • Botanical: Artemisia absinthium
  • Family: Asteraceae
  • Known as: Vermouth, Absinthium, Absinthe, Wormwood, Common wormwood, Green Ginger, Absinth, Aetsch, Bermet, Bitterals, Else, Eisenkraut, Gottvergesse, Hilligbitter, Magenkraut, Mottenstock, Würmut, Wiegenkraut
  • Aroma: camphorus, earthy, medicinal, warm, woody

Vermouth

Artemisia absinthium is a herbaceous, perennial plant with fibrous roots. The stems are straight, growing to 0.8–1.2 metres (2 ft 7 in–3 ft 11 in) (rarely 1.5 m, but, sometimes even larger) tall, grooved, branched, and silvery-green. The leaves are spirally arranged, greenish-grey above and white below, covered with silky silvery-white trichomes, and bearing minute oil-producing glands; the basal leaves are up to 25 cm long, bipinnate to tripinnate with long petioles, with the cauline leaves (those on the stem) smaller, 5–10 cm long, less divided, and with short petioles; the uppermost leaves can be both simple and sessile (without a petiole).

White Hellebore
  • Botanical: Veratrum album
  • Family: Lilaceae
  • Known as: False helleborine, European white hellebore, White veratrum, Weißer Germer, Nieswurz, Hemmer wurzn, Lauskraut, Lauswurz
  • Old Use: medical, industry

White Hellebore

The plant is a perennial herb with a stout vertical rhizome covered with remnants of old leaf sheaths. The stout, simple stems are 50 to 175 cm tall. They have been mistaken for yellow gentian, Gentiana lutea, which is used in beverages, resulting in poisoning.

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