• Botanical: Eucalyptus globulus
  • Family: Myrtaceae
  • Known as: Eucalyptus, Eucalyptus globulus, Eukalyptus,
  • Old Use: culinary; medicinal
  • Aroma: herbaceius, medicinal, woody


The bark sheds often, peeling in large strips. The broad juvenile leaves are borne in opposite pairs on square stems. They are about 6 to 15 cm long and covered with a blue-grey, waxy bloom, which is the origin of the common name "blue gum".

The mature leaves are narrow, sickle-shaped and dark shining green. They are arranged alternately on rounded stems and range from 15 to 35 cm in length.

  • Botanical: Abies alba, Abies pectinata
  • Family: Pinaceae
  • Known as: Abies alba Miller., Abies alba, Silver fir, european silver fir, Weißtanne
  • Old Use: culinary; medicinal; manufacturing
  • Aroma: fresh, earthy, sweet, woody


A. alba is a large evergreen coniferous tree growing to 40–50 metres (130–160 ft) (exceptionally 60 metres (200 ft)) tall and with a trunk diameter of up to 1.5 metres (4 ft 11 in).

The largest measured tree was 68 m tall and had a trunk diameter of 3.8 metres (12 ft). It occurs at altitudes of 300–1,700 metres (980–5,580 ft) (mainly over 500 metres (1,600 ft)), on mountains with a rainfall of over 1,000 millimetres (39 in).

  • Botanical: Boswellia Serrata
  • Family: Burseraceae
  • Known as: Olibanum, Weihrauch, Salai, Boswellia carteri, frankincense
  • Old Use: medicinal; culinary
  • Aroma: earthy, smoky, woody


Obtained from the leafy forest tree Boswellia Thurifera, with leaves deciduous, alternate towards the tops of branches, unequally pinnated; leaflets in about ten pairs with an odd one opposite, oblong, obtuse, serrated, pubescent, sometimes alternate; petioles short.

Flowers, white or pale rose on short pedicels in single axillary racemes shorter than the leaves. Calyx, small five-toothed, persistent; corolla with five obovate-oblong, very patent petals, acute at the base, inserted under the margin of the disk, acstivation slightly imbricative. Stamens, ten, inserted under the disk, alternately shorter; filaments subulate, persistent.

  • Botanical: Garcinia morella
  • Family: Guttiferae
  • Known as: Garcinia mangostana, Mangostane, Gummigutta, Kokumbutter,


The commercial Gamboge is obtained from several varieties, though Garcinia Hanburyii is the official plant, an almost similar gum is obtained from Hypericum. The Gamboge tree grows to a height of 50 feet, with a diameter of 12 inches, and the gum resin is extracted by incisions or by breaking off the leaves and shoots of the trees, the juice which is a milky yellow resinous gum, resides in the ducts of the bark and is gatheredin vessels, and left to thicken and become hardened. Pipe Gamboge is obtained by letting the juice run into hollowed bamboos, and when congealed the bamboo is broken away from it. The trees must be ten years old before they are tapped, and the gum is collected in the rainy season from June to October. 

Gum Arabic
  • Botanical: Acacia senegal
  • Family: Fabaceae
  • Known as: acacia gum, chaar gund, char goond, meska
  • Old Use: culinary use; production of ink

Gum Arabic

Acacia senegal is a low branching shrub or small tree to 7 m high (maximum 15 m). The tree flowers during the rainy season and loses its leaves during the dry season. When water is only available at great depth, deeply penetrating tap roots can develop, and the tree will grow considerably larger than normal.

Japanese Star Anise
  • Botanical: Illicium anisatum
  • Family: Schisandraceae
  • Known as: Japanischer Sternanis, Shikimifrucht,
  • Aroma: camphorus

Japanese Star Anise

The plant bearing star-anise is a small tree or shrub, indigenous to southwestern China, growing in the mountainous elevations of Yunnan. The shrub attains a height of from 8 to 12 feet, and has entire, lanceolate, evergreen leaves, which are pellucid-punctate. The flowers are polypetalous and of a greenish-yellow color. The fruit is described below. This plant was introduced into Japan by the followers of Buddha, and planted near their temples.

  • Botanical: Juniperus communis
  • Family: Cupressaceae
  • Known as: Juniperus communis L., Wacholder, Gemeiner Wacholder, Genevrier commun, Juniper
  • Old Use: Digestive problems, disease of the kidney and bladder
  • Aroma: fresh, fruity, forest, sweet, woody


Juniperus communis L. is a coniferous evergreen shrub or a small columnar tree, multistemmed, decumbent or rarely upright. The crown is generally depressed. It grows very slowly. The morphological characteristics including growth form differ somewhat according to variety. Adventitious root development can occur when branches come in contact with the ground become buried. Juniper has a thin, brown, fibrous bark which exfoliates in thin strips.

  • Botanical: Mallotus philippensis
  • Family: Euphorbiaceae
  • Known as: Glandulae Rottelerae. Kamcela. Spoonwood. Röttlera tinctoria.
  • Old Use: medical, industry
  • Aroma: fruity


It is 20 to 30 feet high, trunk 3 or 4 feet in diameter, branches slender with pale bark, the younger ones covered with dense ferruginous tomentosum; leaves alternate, articulate petioles, 1 to 2 inches long; rusty tomentose, blade 3 to 6 inches long, ovate with two obscure glands at base, entire, coriaceous, upper surface glabrous, veins very prominent on under surface, flowers dioecious. Males three together in the axils of small bracts arranged in longer much-branched axillary branches to the females, both densely covered with ferrugineous tomentosum, flowering November to January. From the surface of the trilobed capsules of the plant, which are about the size of peas, a red mealy powder is obtained; this consists of minute glands and hairs coloured brick or madder red, nearly odourless and tasteless; it is much used by the Hindu silk dyers, who obtain from it by boiling in carbonate of soda, a durable flame colour of great beauty. The capsules are ripe February and March, when the red powder is brushed off and collected for sale; no other preparation is necessary to preserve it.

  • Botanical: Cola acuminata
  • Family: Malvaceae
  • Known as: Cola nitida, Kolanuss
  • Old Use: medicinal and culonary use


This tree grows about 40 feet high, has yellow flowers, spotted with purple; leaves 6 to 8 inches long, pointed at both ends.

The trees have yellow flowers with purple spots, and star-shaped fruit. Inside the fruit, about a dozen round or square seeds can be found in a white seed shell.

The seeds are extensively used as a condiment by the natives of Western and Central tropical Africa, also by the negroes of the West Indies and Brazil, who introduced the trees to these countries. 

  • Botanical: Larix europaea
  • Family: Pinaceae
  • Known as: Lärchtann, Lerbam, Lörbaum, Lorchbaum, Lertanne, Lörtanne, Schönholz
  • Old Use: manufacturing; medicinal
  • Aroma: balsamic, woody


The larch is a deciduous tree and loses its leaves in the autumn. The shoots are dimorphic, with growth divided into long shoots typically 10–50 centimetres long[citation needed] and bearing several buds, and short shoots only 1–2 mm long with only a single bud.

The leaves are needle-like, 2–5 centimetres long, slender (under 1 cm wide). They are borne singly, spirally arranged on the long shoots, and in dense clusters of 20–50 needles on the short shoots. The needles turn yellow and fall in the late autumn, leaving the trees leafless through the winter.

Laurel Cherry
  • Botanical: Prunus laurocerasus
  • Family: Rosaceae
  • Known as: Laurel Cherry, Prunus laurocerasus, English laurel, Lorbeerkirsche,

Laurel Cherry

Prunus laurocerasus is an evergreen shrub or small to medium-sized tree, growing to 5 to 15 metres (16 to 49 ft) tall, rarely to 18 metres (59 ft), with a trunk up to 60cm broad. The leaves are dark green, leathery, shiny, (5–)10–25(–30)cm long and 4–10cm broad, with a finely serrated margin. The leaves can have the scent of almonds when crushed.

  • Botanical: Citrus limon
  • Family: Rutaceae
  • Known as: Lemon, Citrus limon, Citrus Limonum Risso, Zitrone
  • Old Use: culinary; medicinal
  • Aroma: clean, citrus, fruity


Citrus limon is the leading acid citrus fruit, because of its very appealing color, odor and flavor. The true lemon tree reaches 10 to 20 feet in height and usually has sharp thorns on the twigs. Leaves are reddish when young, and become dark green above, light green below. Mildly fragrant flowers may be solitary, or there may be two or more. Buds are reddish. Opened flowers have 4 or 5 petals, white on upper surface, purplish beneath. Fruit is oval with a nipple-like protuberance and is light-yellow. It is aromatic, and dotted with oil glands.

  • Botanical: Tilia
  • Family: Malvaceae, Tiliaceae
  • Known as: Lime Tree, Bee Tree, tilia grandifolia, tilia cordata, Linden, Sommerlinde, Grossblättrige Linde, Winterlinde, Stein-Linde, Kleinblättrige Linde
  • Old Use: medicinal
  • Aroma: citrus, forest, warm


It is a large tree attaining a height of from 60 to 125 feet with a trunk diameter of 2 to 5 feet, with spreading branches. The somewhat leathery leaves are pointed at the apex, heart-shaped at the base, with sharply toothed margins and are borne on stems about 1 or 2 inches long. The flowers are produced in great abundance from May to June in drooping clusters composed of from 6 to 20 yellowish, very fragrant flowers.

Manna Ash
  • Botanical: Fraxinus ornus
  • Family: Oleaceae
  • Known as: Flowering Ash, South European flowering ash
  • Old Use: medical
  • Aroma: sweet

Manna Ash

Fraxinus ornus is a medium-sized deciduous tree growing to 15–25 m tall with a trunk up to 1 m diameter. The bark is dark grey, remaining smooth even on old trees. The buds are pale pinkish-brown to grey-brown, with a dense covering of short grey hairs. The leaves are in opposite pairs, pinnate, 20–30 cm long, with 5-9 leaflets; the leaflets are broad ovoid, 5–10 cm long and 2–4 cm broad, with a finely serrated and wavy margin, and short but distinct petiolules 5–15 mm long; the autumn colour is variable, yellow to purplish. The flowers are produced in dense panicles 10–20 cm long after the new leaves appear in late spring, each flower with four slender creamy white petals 5–6 mm long; they are pollinated by insects. The fruit is a slender samara 1.5-2.5 cm long, the seed 2 mm broad and the wing 4–5 mm broad, green ripening brown.

  • Botanical: Commiphora myrrha
  • Family: Burseraceae
  • Known as: Balsamodendron Myrrha. Commiphora Myrrha, var. Molmol. Mirra. Morr. Didin. Didthin. Bowl
  • Old Use: culinary; ritual; medicinal


A shrub or tree growing up to 5 m tall, scented myrrh has greenish or brownish peeling bark. The leaves are composed of 3 or 5-7 leaflets, 2.5 x 10 cm long when fully mature and oval to broadly oval in shape. The flowers are cream in colour and very small, being only a few mm wide at most. The fruit is rounded, about 1 cm in diameter and contains a single stone.

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