Tree

Nutmeg
  • Botanical: Myristica fragrans
  • Family: Myristicaceae
  • Known as: Nutmeg, Mace, Muskat, Muskatblüte, Macis
  • Old Use: culinary; medicinal
  • Aroma: spicy, sweet, woody

Nutmeg

The tree is about 25 feet high, has a greyish-brown smooth bark, abounding in a yellow juice. The branches spread in whorls - alternate leaves, on petioles about 1 inch long, elliptical, glabrous, obtuse at base - acuminate, aromatic, dark green and glossy above, paler underside and 4 to 6 inches long. Flowers dioecious, small in axillary racemes.

Peduncles and pedicles glabrous. Male flowers three to five more on a peduncle. Calyx urceolate, thick and fleshy, covered with an indistinct reddish pubescence dingy pale yellow, cut into three erect teeth. Female flowers differ little from the male, except pedicel is often solitary.

Oak Durmast
  • Botanical: Quercus petraea
  • Family: Fagaceae
  • Known as: Sessile oak, Cornish oak, Durmast oak
  • Old Use: cooking
  • Aroma: forest

Oak Durmast

The sessile oak is a large deciduous tree up to 20–40 m (66–131 ft) tall, in the white oak section of the genus (Quercus sect. Quercus) and similar to the Pedunculate oak, Q. robur, with which it overlaps extensively in range. The leaves are 7–14 cm (2.8–5.5 in) long and 4–8 cm broad, evenly lobed with five to six lobes on each side, and a 1 cm petiole. The flowers are catkins, produced in the spring. The fruit is an acorn 2–3 cm long and 1–2 cm broad, which matures in about six months.

Oak English
  • Botanical: Quercus robur
  • Family: Fagaceae
  • Known as: English oak, Pedunculate Oak, Stieleiche, Sommereiche, Deutsche Eiche, Traubeneiche, Wintereiche, Eke, Eik, Ferkeleiche, Masteiche, Oachen
  • Old Use: cooking
  • Aroma: forest

Oak English

Quercus robur is a large deciduous tree, with circumference of grand oaks from 4 m (13') to exceptional 12m (40'). Majesty Oak with the circumference of 12,2 m (40') is the thickest tree in Great Britain, but Kaive Oak in Latvia with the circumference of 10,2 m (33,5') is the thickest tree in Northern Europe. Q. robur has lobed and nearly sessile (very short-stalked) leaves 7–14 cm long. Flowering takes place in mid spring, and their fruit, called acorns, ripen by the following autumn.

Olive
  • Botanical: Olea europaea
  • Family: Oleaceae
  • Known as: Olivenbaum, Olive
  • Old Use: medical, culinary, industry
  • Aroma: exotic, fruity

Olive

This much-branched evergreen tree varies in size from 2 to 15 m high. The leaves have an opposite, decussate arrangement, and are entire, 3 to 7 cm long and 0.8 to 2.5 cm wide; the apex is acute with a small hook or point, and the base is attenuate to cuneate. Leaf margins are entire and recurved, the upper surface is grey-green and glossy, and the lower surface has a dense covering of silvery, golden or brown scales. Domatia are absent; venation is obvious on the upper surface and obscure on the lower surface; the petiole is up to 10 mm long. Fruit are borne in panicles or racmes 50 to 60mm long. The calyx is four-lobed, about 1mm long. The corolla is greenish-white or cream; the tube is 1 to 2mm long; lobes are about 3mm long and reflexed at the anthesis. The two stamens are fused near the top of the corolla tube, with bilobed stigma. The globose to ellipsoid fruit is a drupe, 6mm in diameter and 15 to 25 mm long; it is fleshy, glaucous to a dull shine when ripe, and purple-black. The tree usually flowers in spring. The wood is much-prized and durable, with a strong smell similar to bay rum, and is used for fine furniture and turnery.

Orange
  • Botanical: Citrus aurantium
  • Family: Rutaceae
  • Known as: Orange, Citrus aurantium, Apfelsine
  • Old Use: culinary; medicinal
  • Aroma: citrus, fruity, sweet

Orange

It is a small tree with a smooth, greyishbrown bark and branches that spread into a fairly regular hemisphere. The oval, alternate, evergreen leaves, 3 to 4 inches long, have sometimes a spine in the axil. They are glossy, dark green on the upper side, paler beneath. The calyx is cup-shaped and the thick, fleshy petals, five in number, are intensely white, and curl back.

  • Botanical: Liquidambar orientalis
  • Family: Hamamelidaceae
  • Known as: Turkish sweetgum, Orientalische Amberbaum
  • Old Use: medical, parasiticide, indusrty
  • Aroma: balsamic

Oriental Sweetgum

They are all large, deciduous trees, 25–40 metres (82–131 ft) tall, with palmately 3- to 7-lobed leaves arranged spirally on the stems and length of 12.5 to 20 centimetres (4.9 to 7.9 in), having a pleasant aroma when crushed.[3] Mature bark is grayish and vertically grooved.[3] The flowers are small, produced in a dense globular inflorescence 1–2 centimetres (0.39–0.79 in) diameter, pendulous on a 3–7 centimetres (1.2–2.8 in) stem. The fruit is a woody multiple capsule 2–4 centimetres (0.79–1.57 in) in diameter (popularly called a "gumball"), containing numerous seeds and covered in numerous prickly, woody armatures, possibly to attach to fur of animals. The woody biomass is classified as hardwood. In more northerly climates, sweetgum is among the last of trees to leaf out in the spring, and also among the last of trees to drop its leaves in the fall, turning multiple colors

Papaya
  • Botanical: Carica papaya
  • Family: Caricaceae
  • Known as: Melonenbaum, Papaw, Pawpaw
  • Old Use: cooking aid and traditional medicine

Papaya

The papaya is a large, tree-like plant, with a single stem growing from 5 to 10 m (16 to 33 ft) tall, with spirally arranged leaves confined to the top of the trunk. The lower trunk is conspicuously scarred where leaves and fruit were borne. The leaves are large, 50–70 cm (20–28 in) in diameter, deeply palmately lobed, with seven lobes. Unusually for such large plants, the trees are dioecious.

Pepper Black
  • Botanical: Piper nigrum
  • Family: Piperaceae
  • Known as: Black pepper, Pfeffer
  • Old Use: cooking
  • Aroma: sharp, spicy

Pepper Black

Pepper plants are climbers which grow to a height or length of 10 m or more. When its main stem is established, it grows lots of side shoots to create a bushy column.

The plants form short roots, called adventitious roots, which connect to surrounding supports.

Although black pepper is cultivated in many tropical regions, it is native to Kerala State in India where it still occurs wild in the mountains.

Peru Balsam
  • Botanical: Myroxylon balsamum
  • Family: Fabaceae
  • Known as: Peru Balsam, Tolu Balsam, Myroxylon balsamum, Balsam of Tolu, Balsam of Peru, Myroxylon, Perubalsam, Balsambäume, Cabreúva, Cabreuva, Myrocarpus fastigiatus, Quina, Balsamo
  • Old Use: medicinal, culinary; flavoring
  • Aroma: balsamic, spicy, sweet, warm

Peru Balsam

The trees are large, growing to 40 metres (130 ft) tall, with evergreen pinnate leaves 15 centimetres (5.9 in) long, with 5–13 leaflets. The flowers are white with yellow stamens, produced in racemes. The fruit is a pod 7–11 centimetres (2.8–4.3 in) long, containing a single seed.

The wood is dark brown, with a deep red heartwood. Natural oils grant it excellent decay resistance. In fact, it is also resistant to preservative treatment. Its specific gravity is 0.74 to 0.81.

Pine Dammar
  • Botanical: Agathis dammara
  • Family: Araucariaceae
  • Known as: Pine, Araucariaceae, Pine Dammar, Kauri, Conifer, Kauri-Bäume, Kaurifichten, Kaurikiefern

Pine Dammar

Trees to 60 m tall and 1.8 m dbh. Mature trees follow the usual Agathis model of a long clear bole with a broad emergent crown of large rigid first-order branches. The authorities differ in opinion about the bark, calling it gray, red-gray, light brown, or black, finely dimpled to thinly scaly or with many resin blisters, or rough, exfoliating thus with few epiphytes. Leaves sub-opposite, thick, coriaceous, light to dark green, highly variable even on a single tree. On young trees lanceolate, acuminate, 3x7 cm to 3.5x13 cm.

Pine Scotch
  • Botanical: Pinus sylvestris
  • Family: Pinaceae
  • Known as: Scots Pine, Pinus sylvestris, Schottische Kiefer, Kiefer, Gemeine Kiefer, Rotföhre, Weißkiefer, Forche
  • Old Use: culinary; medicinal
  • Aroma: balsamic, forest

Pine Scotch

Pinus sylvestris is an evergreen coniferous tree growing up to 35 m in height and 1 m trunk diameter when mature, exceptionally to 45 m tall and 1.7 m trunk diameter[citation needed] and on very productive sites (in Estonia, there are some 220-year-old trees that are 46 metres tall in the forests of Järvselja). The bark is thick, scaly dark grey-brown on the lower trunk, and thin, flaky and orange on the upper trunk and branches.

Pomegranate
  • Botanical: Punica granatum
  • Family: Lythraceae
  • Known as: Granatapfelbaum
  • Old Use: culinary; medicinal
  • Aroma: exotic, fruity, sweet

Pomegranate

An attractive shrub or small tree, to 20 or 30 ft (6 or 10 m) high, the Pomegranate is much-branched, more or less spiny.

An extremely long-lived species, some specimens at Versailles are known to have survived two centuries. The leaves are evergreen or deciduous, opposite or in whorls of 5 or 6, short-stemmed, oblong-lanceolate, 3/8 to 4 in (1-10 cm) long and leathery. Showy flowers are home on the branch tips singly or as many as 5 in a cluster.

Purging Croton
  • Botanical: Croton tiglium
  • Family: Euphorbiaceae
  • Known as: Jamaal Gota, Crotonöl
  • Old Use: medical

Purging Croton

A small tree or shrub with a few spreading branches bearing alternate petiolate leaves which are ovate, acuminate, serrate, smooth, dark green on upper surface paler beneath and furnished with two glands at base.

Flowers in erect terminal racemes, scarcely as long as the leaf, the lower female, upper male, straw-coloured petals.

Fruit a smooth capsule of the size of a filbert, three cells, each containing a single seed; these seeds resemble castor beans in size and structure, oblong, rounded at the extremities with two faces; the kernel or endosperm is yellowish brown and abounds in oil.

The oil is obtained by expression from the seeds previously deprived of the shell.

Quince
  • Botanical: Cydonia oblonga
  • Family: Rosaceae
  • Known as: Quitte
  • Old Use: C. vulgaris. Pyrus cydonia.
  • Aroma: balsamic, clean, fruity

Quince

The tree grows 5 to 8 metres (16 and a half feet to 26 feet) high and 4 to 6 metres (13 feet to 19 and a half feet) wide. The fruit is 7 to 12 centimetres (3 to 5 inches) long and 6 to 9 centimetres (2 to 3 and a half inches) across.

The immature fruit is green with dense grey-white pubescence, most of which rubs off before maturity in late autumn when the fruit changes colour to yellow with hard, strongly perfumed flesh. The leaves are alternately arranged, simple, 6–11 cm (2–4 in) long, with an entire margin and densely pubescent with fine white hairs. The flowers, produced in spring after the leaves, are white or pink, 5 cm (2 in) across, with five petals.

Roughbark
  • Botanical: Guaiacum officinale
  • Family: Zygophyllaceae
  • Known as: Guajacum officinale, Roughbark Lignum-vitae, Guaiacwood, Gaïacwood, Guajak

Roughbark

This small tree is very slow growing, reaching about 10 m in height with a trunk diameter of 60 cm. The tree is essentially evergreen throughout most of its native range. The leaves are compound, 2.5 to 3 cm in length, and 2 cm wide. The blue flowers have five petals that yield a bright-yellow-orange fruit with red flesh and black seeds.

Welcome to plantlexica.com

Your Medical Plant Guide

We are continuesly expanding our plant database.
Our goal is to collect all the information of benifitial and medicinal plants and share it.

Help and support us comleting our mission. See how here.

beta v1 - a opassoap.com project