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  • Botanical: Citrus bergamia
  • Family: Rutaceae
  • Hits: 5592


Citrus bergamia



Known as

Bergamia, Bitter Orange, Citrus bergamot, Citrus bergamia Risso, Bergamotte,

Old Use

culinary; medicinal

Parts Used



citrus, fruity, sweet


abdominal pain, aging, antiseptic, anxiety, bronchitis, bladder disease, bladder weakness, bronchitis, colic, coughs, cramps, cystitis, depression, diarrhea, digestion, eczema, fatigue, flatulence, flu, gastritis, gastrointestinal, gingivitis, herpes, laxative, insomnia, intestinal parasites, menstrual problems, nervousness, respiratory, sleep, sinusitis, stress relief, throat inflammation, urinary infections, vaginitis, wounds, neurasthenia, mouth sores, pyelonephritis

Hormone & Sexual Organs

menstrual problems, vaginitis

Infection & Inflammation

fever, flu, gingivitis, infections, infections intestinal, mouth inflammation, pyelonephritis, sinusitis, skin inflammation, throat infections, throat inflammation

Mind & Nerves

anxiety, depression, fatigue (exhaustion), insomnia, irritability, loss of appetite, neurasthenia, nervousness, restlessness, sleep, stress relief

Respiratory System

bronchitis, colds, cough, difficulty breathing, pharyngitis, throat infections, tonsillitis

Stomach & Intestinal

cystitis, diarrhea, digestion, flatulence, gastritis, gastrointestinal, laxative, indigestion, intestinal parasites, vomiting

Skin & Hair

dermatitis, eczema


anesthetic, antibacterial, antiseptic, antispasmodic, antidepressant, antiviral, anti inflammatory, carminative, digestive, expectorant, febrifuge, relaxant, restoring, sedative




cold pressed/refined


Erect, unarmed, much branched tree up to 12 m tall, with trunk up to 25 cm in diameter; in cultivation trees are pruned up to 4-5 m in height with crown diameter of about 5 m. Leaves alternate, simple, glandular, aromatic when bruised; petiole about 13 mm long, moderately winged, articulated near the blade; blade lanceolate, up to 12 cm x 6 cm, in upper third part weakly indented. Inflorescence terminal, racemose, many-flowered; pedicel up to 8 mm long; flowers bisexual, 4-5(-10)-merous,

fragrant; calyx cup-shaped with short lobes, yellow-green; corolla 3.8 cm in diameter, most often with 5, narrow-elongate, pure-white petals without any purple tinge; stamens (13-)21(-28), in (2-)4(-6) groups, sometimes petaloid; disk nectariferous; pistil with subglobose ovary, short and thick style, distinct to indistinct stigma. Fruit a slightly flattened subglobose to pyriform berry (hesperidium), 6.5-7 cm x 6-7.5 cm, often with a small navel and a persistent style; peel 6-7 mm thick, with numerous glands, tough, smooth to rough, sometimes ridged, adherent, shiny green turning yellow when ripe; flesh yellowish, firm, very acid and bitter, divided into 8-14 segments. Seed (0-)3(-13) per fruit, flattened, 11 mm x 6 mm x 4.4 mm, pale yellow, usually monoembryonic. C. bergamia is most probably of hybrid origin. It has been suggested that it is a hybrid between sour orange (C. aurantium L.) and lemon (C. limon (L.) Burm.f.), or a mutation of the latter. Others hold it as a hybrid between sour orange and lime (C. aurantifolia (Christm. & Panzer) Swingle). Bergamot is only known from cultivation and consists of a limited and well defined number of cultivars. Four cultivar groups are recognized in bergamot: Common Bergamot, Melarosa (fruit rather flattened), Torulosa (fruit ridged) and Piccola (dwarf cultivars). Only Common Bergamot is commercially cultivated for the essential oil and 3 cultivars are grown: 'Castagnaro', 'Femminello' and 'Inserto'. Formerly, 'Femminello' and 'Castagnaro' constituted virtually all commercial plantings in the world, but they have largely been replaced by 'Inserto' ('Fantastico'), a hybrid of 'Femminello' and 'Castagnaro'. 'Femminello' is somewhat less vigorous and smaller than 'Castagnaro', but is earlier and more regular in bearing. Its fruit is spherical or nearly so, the rind smooth and more aromatic and hence it is preferred. 'Castagnaro' is more upright and vigorous, attaining a larger size than 'Femminello', but is less fruitful. Its fruit is roundish but frequently exhibits a short neck and obovate outline and is sometimes slightly ribbed; the rind is usually rougher and the oil usually less aromatic than in 'Femminello'. 'Inserto' is a fairly vigorous tree, that yields well and has only a slight tendency to alternate-bearing; its fruit is medium in size, averaging about 130 g with a rough rind texture.

Properties & Uses

The fresh, uplifting scent of bergamot essential oil is used to stabilize the emotions, calm and tone the nervous system, relieve tension and insomnia, and is beneficial for anxiety and depression. 

 Bergamot essential oil is very useful as an anti-infectious agent and is effective against a wide number of microorganisms. Bergamot essential oil has been used in traditional medicine for intestinal worms and fever, respiratory infections, urinary tract infections, and skin problems.  

Bergamot essential oil aids digestion and can relieve symptoms of colic and gas when massaged into the abdomen.


none known


Native to Asia, now cultivated in southern Italy and the Ivory Coast


Essential oil, linalyl acetate, limonene, terpineol, bergapten, bisabolene, nerol

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