Stomach & Intestinal

Rice
  • Botanical: Oryza sativa
  • Family: Poaceae
  • Known as: Reis, Nivara. Dhan. O. montana. O. setegera. O. latifolia. Bras. Paddy.
  • Old Use: culinary, medical
  • Aroma: clean, oriental

Rice

Rice is an annual plant with several jointed culms or stems from 2 to 10 feet long, the lower part floating in water or prostrate, with roots at the nodes, the rest erect. The panicle is terminal and diffuse, bowing when the seed is weighty. It is probably indigenous to China, and certainly to India, where the wild form grows by tanks, ditches and rivers. It was early introduced into East Africa and Syria, and later into America, where it already appears as a native plant. In Europe, rice was brought into the Mediterranean basin from Syria by the Arabs in the Middle Ages, but is now grown largely only in the plain of Lombardy, and a little in Spain. In England it has been cultivated merely as a curiosity, and may be seen in the hothouses of most botanic gardens, treated as a water plant. The Cingalese distinguish 160 kinds, while 50 or 60 are cultivated in India, not including the wild form, from which the grain is collected, though it is never cultivated. Most kinds require irrigation, but some need little water, or can be grown on ordinary, dry ground. Oryza (the classical name of the grain), or the husked seeds, is called Bras by the Malays, and Paddy when it is enclosed in the husk. Carolina and Patna rice are the most esteemed in England and the United States. The grain of the first is round and flat, and boils soft for puddings; the latter has a long and narrow grain that keeps its shape well for curries, etc. The flour procured from the seeds is called Oryzae Farina, or rice flour, commonly known as ground rice. The granules of rice starch are the smallest of all known starch granules.

Rose Cabbage
  • Botanical: Rosa centifolia
  • Family: Rosaceae
  • Known as: Rosa gallica, Centifolie, Bischofsrose, Fleischrose, Gartenrose, hundertblättrige Rose, Jungfernrose, Kaiserrose, Knopfrose, Moosrose, Pomponrose, Trianonrose, Vielblättrige Rose
  • Old Use: culinary

Rose Cabbage

Rose plants are usually shrubby, in appearance with long drooping canes and grayish green leaves. The flowers are round and globular, with thin overlapping petals that are highly scented. The shrub is erect, with a height of 3 to 6 feet. The branches are closely covered with nearly straight prickles. The shoots of the plant are also erect. The leaves are unequally pinnate and there are 5 to 7 leaflets, which are oblong or ovate. The flowers of rose plant, which account for the petals, are large and pinkish or red in color. The flowers vary in hues, form and size. There are 100 documented varieties of flowers from this plant.

Roughbark
  • Botanical: Guaiacum officinale
  • Family: Zygophyllaceae
  • Known as: Guajacum officinale, Roughbark Lignum-vitae, Guaiacwood, Gaïacwood, Guajak

Roughbark

This small tree is very slow growing, reaching about 10 m in height with a trunk diameter of 60 cm. The tree is essentially evergreen throughout most of its native range. The leaves are compound, 2.5 to 3 cm in length, and 2 cm wide. The blue flowers have five petals that yield a bright-yellow-orange fruit with red flesh and black seeds.

Rue Common
  • Botanical: Ruta graveolens
  • Family: Rutaceae
  • Known as: Rue, Ruta graveolens, Herb of Grace, Raute, Weinraute
  • Old Use: culinary; medicinal

Rue Common

A perennial herb or small shrub with a bad smell. Grows erect up to 1 meter high with leaves that alternate, are twice or thrice divided and are 1.5 -2 cm long. The greenish yellow, tiny flowers with fringe petals are born in terminal clusters 

Sage
  • Botanical: Salvia officinalis
  • Family: Lamiaceae
  • Known as: Sage, Altweiberschmecken, Edelsalbei, Echter Salbei, Garten-Salbei, Gschmackblatteln, Königssalbei, Kreuzsalbei, Muskatellerkraut, Sälvel, Salf, Salfat, Salser, Scharleikraut, Selve, Zaffe, Zuffen, Zupfblatteln
  • Old Use: culinary; medicinal
  • Aroma: herbaceius, sharp, spicy

Sage

Cultivars are quite variable in size, leaf and flower color, and foliage pattern, with many variegated leaf types. The Old World type grows to approximately 2 ft (0.61 m) tall and wide, with lavender flowers most common, though they can also be white, pink, or purple. The plant flowers in late spring or summer. The leaves are oblong, ranging in size up to 2.5 in (6.4 cm) long by 1 in (2.5 cm) wide.

Sand Sedge
  • Botanical: Carex arenaria
  • Family: Cyperaceae
  • Known as: Sand Segge, Calamus. Sweet Flag. Sweet Root. Sweet Rush. Sweet Cane. Gladdon. Sweet Myrtle. Myrtle Grass. Myrtle Sedge. Cinnamon Sedge.
  • Aroma: exotic, sharp

Sand Sedge

The Sweet Sedge is a perennial herb, with a long, indefinite, branched, cylindrical rhizome immersed in the mud, about the thickness of a finger and emitting numerous roots. The erect leaves are yellowish-green, 2 to 3 feet in length, few, all radical, sheathing at their bases (which are pink), swordshaped, narrow and flat, tapering into a long, acute point, the edges entire, but wavy or crimped.

The leaves are much like those of Iris, but may readily be distinguished from these and from all others by the peculiar crimped edges and their aromatic odour when bruised.

The scape or flower-stem arises from the axils of the outer leaves, which it much resembles, but is longer and solid and triangular. From one side, near the middle of its length, projecting upwards at an angle, from the stem, it sends out a solid, cylindrical, blunt spike or spadix, tapering at each end, from 2 to 4 inches in length, often somewhat curved and densely crowded with very small greenish-yellow flowers.

Each tiny flower contains six stamens enclosed in a perianth with six divisions and surrounding a threecelled, oblong ovary with a sessile stigma.

The fruit, which does not ripen in Europe, is a berry, being full of mucus, which falls when ripe into the water or to the ground, and is thus dispersed, but it fruits sparingly everywhere and propagates itself mainly by the rapid growth of its spreading rhizome.

Sandalwood
  • Botanical: Santalum album
  • Family: Santalaceae
  • Known as: Santalum album, Indian sandalwood
  • Old Use: medicinal anc culinary use
  • Aroma: exotic, floral, spicy, sweet

Sandalwood

Sandalwood is derived from an Indian tree. Its fragrance is both heavy and earthy, but also the other lovely and sweet, a total of very exotic. In the sandalwood fragrance lamp spreads a warm, friendly indoor environment, releases the tension and makes the senses. Applied externally as a component of sandalwood creams for dry skin and helps relieve eczema.

Sassafras
  • Botanical: Sassafras albidum
  • Family: Lauraceae
  • Known as: White Sassafras, Red Sassafras, Silky Sassafras, Sassafrasbaum, Fenchelholzbaum, Nelkenzimtbaum
  • Old Use: medical, culinary, industry

Sassafras

It is a medium-sized deciduous tree growing to 15–20 m tall, with a trunk up to 60 cm diameter, and a crown with many slender branches. The bark on trunk of mature trees is thick, dark red-brown, and deeply furrowed. The branching is sympodial. The shoots are bright yellow green at first with mucilaginous bark, turning reddish brown, and in two or three years begin to show shallow fissures. The leaves are alternate, green to yellow-green, ovate or obovate, 10–16 cm long and 5–10 cm broad with a short, slender, slightly grooved petiole. They come in three different shapes, all of which can be on the same branch; three-lobed leaves, unlobed elliptical leaves, and two-lobed leaves; rarely, there can be more than three lobes. In fall, they turn to shades of yellow, tinged with red. The flowers are produced in loose, drooping, few-flowered racemes up to 5 cm long in early spring shortly before the leaves appear; they are yellow to greenish-yellow, with five or six tepals. It is usually dioecious, with male and female flowers on separate trees; male flowers have nine stamens, female flowers with six staminodes (aborted stamens) and a 2–3 mm style on a superior ovary. Pollination is by insects. The fruit is a dark blue-black drupe 1 cm long containing a single seed, borne on a red fleshy club-shaped pedicel 2 cm long; it is ripe in late summer, with the seeds dispersed by birds. The cotyledons are thick and fleshy. All parts of the plant are aromatic and spicy. The roots are thick and fleshy, and frequently produce root sprouts which can develop into new trees.

Sea Mango
  • Botanical: Cerbera tanghin
  • Family: Apocynaceae
  • Known as: Cerbera manghas, Tanghin poison nut,
  • Old Use: cardiac disorders, scabies and itching

Sea Mango

Cerbera manghas is a small evergreen coastal tree growing up 12 m tall. The the shiny dark-green leaves
are alternate, ovoid in shape. The flowers are fragrant, possessing a white, tubular, 5 lobed corolla about 3 to 5 cm in diameter, with a pink to red throat. There are 5 stamens, and the ovary is positioned above the other flower parts. The fruits are egg-shaped, 5 to 10 cm long, and turn purple-red at maturity
Senega Snakeroot
  • Botanical: Polygala senega
  • Family: Polygalaceae
  • Known as: Senega Snakeroot, Senegaroot, Rattlesnake root, Mountain flax,
  • Old Use: medical

Senega Snakeroot

This species is a perennial herb with multiple stems up to 50 centimeters tall. The stems are usually unbranched, but some old plants can have branching stems. A mature plant can have up to 70 stems growing from a hard, woody rootstock that spreads horizontally. The lance-shaped leaves are alternately arranged. The lower leaves are reduced and scale-like. The inflorescence is a spike of rounded white or greenish flowers. The fruit is a capsule containing two hairy black seeds. The root is twisted and conical, with a scent somewhat like wintergreen and a very pungent taste. There are two root morphs; a northern morph growing in Canada and toward Minnesota has larger roots up to 15 centimeters long by 1.2 wide which are dark brown and sometimes purplish toward the top, and a southern morph found in the southeastern United States that has smaller, yellow-brown roots.

Senna Alexandrian
  • Botanical: Senna alexandrina
  • Family: Fabaceae
  • Known as: Cassia lanceolata, Egyptian Senna, Tinnevelly Senna, East Indian Senna, séné de la palthe, Alexandrinische Senna
  • Old Use: medical
  • Aroma: sweet

Senna Alexandrian

Alexandrian Senna is a shrubby plant that reaches 0.5–1, rarely two, metres in height with a branched, pale-green erect stem and long spreading branches bearing four or five pairs of leaves. These leaves form complex, feathery, mutual pairs. The leaflets vary from 4 to 6 pairs, fully edged, with a sharp top. The midribs are equally divided at the base of the leaflets. The flowers are in a raceme interior[verification needed] blossoms, big in size, coloured yellow that tends to brown. Its legume fruit are horned, broadly oblong, compressed and flat and contain about six seeds.

Sesame
  • Botanical: Sesamum orientale
  • Family: Pedaliacae
  • Known as: Sesam
  • Old Use: medical, culinary, industry

Sesame

Sesamum indicum is an annual plant, with an erect, pubescent, branching stem, 2 to 4 feet in height. The leaves are ovate-lanceolate, or oblong; the lower ones trilobed and sometimes ternate; the upper undivided, irregularly serrate and pointed. The flowers are of a pale-purple color, axillary, and borne on short glandular pedicels. The fruit is an oblong, mucronate, pubescent capsule, containing numerous small, oval, yellowish seeds

Strychnine tree
  • Botanical: Strychnos nux-vomica
  • Family: Loganiaceae
  • Known as: nux vomica, poison nut, semen strychnos, quaker buttons, Gewöhnliche Brechnuss, Brechnuss, Krähenaugenbaum, Strychninbaum, Brechnussbaum
  • Old Use: medical

Strychnine tree

S. nux-vomica is a medium-sized tree with a short thick trunk. The wood is dense, hard white, and close-grained. The branches are irregular and are covered with a smooth ashen bark. The young shoots are a deep green colour with a shiny coat. The leaves have an opposite decussate arrangement, short stalked, are oval shaped, also have a shiny coat and are smooth on both sides. The leaves are about 4 inches (10 cm) long and 3 inches (7.6 cm) wide. The flowers are small with a pale green colour with a funnel shape. They bloom in the cold season and have a foul smell. The fruit are about the size of a large apple with a smooth and hard shell which when ripened is a mild shade orange colour. The flesh of the fruit is soft and white with a jelly-like pulp containing five seeds covered with a soft woolly substance. The seeds are removed from the fruit when ripe. They are then cleaned, dried and sorted.

The seeds have the shape of a flattened disk completely covered with hairs radiating from the center of the sides. This gives the seeds a very characteristic sheen. The seeds are very hard, with a dark grey horny endosperm where the small embryo is housed that gives off no odour but possesses a very bitter taste.

Sugarcane
  • Botanical: Saccharum officinarum
  • Family: Poaceae
  • Known as: Zuckerrohr, cane beetle, cane grub
  • Old Use: medical, culinary, industry
  • Aroma: sweet

Sugarcane

S. officinarum, a perennial plant, grows in clumps consisting of a number of strong unbranched stems. A network of rhizomes forms under the soil which sends up secondary shoots near the parent plant. The stems vary in colour, being green, pinkish, or purple and can reach 5 m (16 ft) in height. They are jointed, nodes being present at the bases of the alternate leaves. The internodes contain a fibrous white pith immersed in sugary sap. The elongated, linear, green leaves have thick midribs and saw-toothed edges and grow to a length of about 30 to 60 cm (12 to 24 in) and width of 5 cm (2.0 in). The terminal inflorescence is a panicle up to 60 cm (24 in) long, a pinkish plume that is broadest at the base and tapering towards the top. The spikelets are borne on side branches and are about 3 mm (0.12 in) long and are concealed in tufts of long, silky hair. The fruits are dry and each one contains a single seed. Sugarcane harvest typically occurs before the plants flower, as the flowering process causes a reduction in sugar content.

Sweet Iris
  • Botanical: Iris pallida
  • Family: Iridaceae
  • Known as: Dalmatian iris, Bleiche Schwertlilie, Dalmatinische Iris
  • Old Use: medical
  • Aroma: floral

Sweet Iris

This iris prefers rocky places in the mediterranean and submediterranean zone and reaches sometimes montane regions at its southern range in Montenegro. It grows to a stem height of 50 to 80 centimeters. The leaves are bluish-green in color, and sword-shaped, 40 to 50 centimeters in length, and 2.5 to 3 centimeters in width. The inflorescence, produced in May/June, is fan-shaped and contains two or three flowers which are usually pale purplish to whitish.

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