- Botanical: Pinus nigra
- Family: Pinaceae
- Hits: 1253
Known asPinus laricio, Schwarzkiefer, Schwarzföhre
Old Usemedicine, industry
Medicinalantiseptic, arthritis, bronchitis, boils, bad breath, bladder disease, bladder weakness, bronchitis, bruises, burns, chapped skin, colds, coughs, cystitis, difficulty breathing, kidney weakness, respiratory, rheumatism, skin rashes, wounds, tonsillitis, open sores, pharyngitis
Infection & Inflammationskin inflammation, throat infections, throat inflammation
Respiratory Systembronchitis, catarrh, colds, cough, difficulty breathing, pharyngitis, respiratory, sore throat
Skin & Hairboils, bruises, burns, corns, dermatitis, frostbite, itching
Propertiesantiseptic, diuretic, rubefacient, vermifuge
Pinus nigra is a large coniferous evergreen tree, growing to 20–55 metres (66–180 ft) tall at maturity. The bark is grey to yellow-brown, and is widely split by flaking fissures into scaly plates, becoming increasingly fissured with age. The leaves ("needles") are thinner and more flexible in western populations.
The ovulate and pollen cones appear from May to June. The mature seed cones are 5–10 cm (rarely to 11 cm) long, with rounded scales; they ripen from green to pale grey-buff or yellow-buff in September to November, about 18 months after pollination. The seeds are dark grey, 6–8 mm long, with a yellow-buff wing 20–25 mm long; they are wind-dispersed when the cones open from December to April. Sexual maturity is reached at 15–40 years; large seed crops are produced at 2–5 year intervals. P. nigra is moderately fast growing, at about 30–70 centimetres (12–28 in) per year. It usually has a rounded conic form, that becomes irregular with age. The tree can be long-lived, with some trees over 500 years old. It needs full sun to grow well, is intolerant of shade, and is resistant to snow and ice damage.
Properties & Uses
The turpentine obtained from the resin of all pine trees is antiseptic, diuretic, rubefacient and vermifuge. It is a valuable remedy used internally in the treatment of kidney and bladder complaints and is used both internally and as a rub and steam bath in the treatment of rheumatic affections. It is also very beneficial to the respiratory system and so is useful in treating diseases of the mucous membranes and respiratory complaints such as coughs, colds, influenza and TB. Externally it is a very beneficial treatment for a variety of skin complaints, wounds, sores, burns, boils etc and is used in the form of liniment plasters, poultices, herbal steam baths and inhalers.
A tan or green dye is obtained from the needles. The needles contain a substance called terpene, this is released when rain washes over the needles and it has a negative effect on the germination of some plants, including wheat. A very wind resistant tree, it can be grown as part of a shelterbelt planting. Trees have proved to be very resistant to maritime exposure on our Cornwall trial grounds. Resin and turpentine are obtained from the wood, they are used in ointments and plasters. Oleo-resins are present in the tissues of all species of pines, but these are often not present in sufficient quantity to make their extraction economically worthwhile. The resins are obtained by tapping the trunk, or by destructive distillation of the wood. In general, trees from warmer areas of distribution give the higher yields. Turpentine consists of an average of 20% of the oleo-resin and is separated by distillation. Turpentine has a wide range of uses including as a solvent for waxes etc, for making varnish, medicinal etc. Rosin is the substance left after turpentine is removed. This is used by violinists on their bows and also in making sealing wax, varnish etc. Pitch can also be obtained from the resin and is used for waterproofing, as a wood preservative etc. Wood - non durable. Used for rough carpentry and furniture
The wood, sawdust and resins from various species of pine can cause dermatitis in sensitive people
Pinus nigra is a tree of the Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub biome. The majority of the range is in Turkey. It is found in the higher elevations of the South Apennine mixed montane forests ecoregion in southern Italy and the Tyrrhenian-Adriatic sclerophyllous and mixed forests ecoregion in Sicily. There are remnant populations in the Mediterranean conifer and mixed forests ecoregion, and in the higher Atlas Mountains in Morocco and Algeria. It is found at elevations ranging from sea level to 2,000 metres (6,600 ft), most commonly from 250–1,600 metres (820–5,250 ft). Several of the varieties have distinct English names.
diterpenes (38.5%) manool oxide (38%) sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (41.4%) germacrene D (16.7%), δ-cadinene (9%) (E)-caryophyllene