• borst
  • lavender
  • dandelion

Stomach & Intestinal

Tamarind
  • Botanical: Tamarindus indica
  • Family: Leguminosae
  • Known as: Tamarindenbaum, Indische Dattel, Sauerdattel
  • Old Use: medical, induscty
  • Aroma: sweet

Tamarind

The tamarind is a long-lived, medium-growth, bushy tree, which attains a maximum crown height of 12 to 18 metres (40 to 60 feet). The crown has an irregular, vase-shaped outline of dense foliage. The tree grows well in full sun in clay, loam, sandy, and acidic soil types, with a high drought and aerosol salt (wind-borne salt as found in coastal areas) resistance. Leaves are evergreen, bright green in color, elliptical ovular, arrangement is alternate, of the pinnately compound type, with pinnate venation and less than 5 cm (2 inches) in length. The branches droop from a single, central trunk as the tree matures and is often pruned in human agriculture to optimize tree density and ease of fruit harvest. At night, the leaflets close up.The tamarind does flower, though inconspicuously, with red and yellow elongated flowers. Flowers are 2.5 cm wide (one inch), five-petalled, borne in small racemes, and yellow with orange or red streaks. Buds are pink as the four sepals are pink and are lost when the flower blooms. Tamarind flowers The fruit is an indehiscent legume, sometimes called a pod, 12 to 15 cm (3 to 6 inches) in length, with a hard, brown shell. The fruit has a fleshy, juicy, acidulous pulp. It is mature when the flesh is coloured brown or reddish-brown. The tamarinds of Asia have longer pods containing six to 12 seeds, whereas African and West Indian varieties have short pods containing one to six seeds. The seeds are somewhat flattened, and glossy brown. The tamarind is best described as sweet and sour in taste, and is high in tartaric acid, sugar, B vitamins and, oddly for a fruit, calcium. As a tropical species, it is frost sensitive. The pinnate leaves with opposite leaflets give a billowing effect in the wind. Tamarind timber consists of hard, dark red heartwood and softer, yellowish sapwood. Tamarindus leaves and pod It is harvested by pulling the pod from its stalk. A mature tree may be capable of producing up to 175 kg (350 lb) of fruit per year. Veneer grafting, shield (T or inverted T) budding, and air layering may be used to propagate desirable selections. Such trees will usually fruit within three to four years if provided optimum growing conditions.

Tea
  • Botanical: Camellia sinensis
  • Family: Theaceae
  • Known as: Black Tea, Schwarztee
  • Old Use: culinary, medicinal use

Tea

A small evergreen shrub cultivated to a height of 7 to 8 feet, but growing wild up to 30 feet high, much branched. Bark rough, grey. Leaves dark green, lanceolate or elliptical, on short stalks, blunt at apex, base tapering, margins shortly serrate, young leaves hairy, older leaves glabrous.

Tinder Fungus
  • Botanical: Fomes fomentarius
  • Family: Polyporaceae
  • Known as: Polyporus fomentarius, tinder fungus, false tinder fungus, hoof fungus, tinder conk, tinder polypore, ice man fungus, Zunderschwamm
  • Old Use: medical, industry
  • Aroma: earthy

Tinder Fungus

Fomes fomentarius has a fruit body of between 5 and 45 centimetres (2.0 and 17.7 in) across, 3 and 25 cm (1.2 and 9.8 in) wide and 2 and 25 cm (0.8 and 9.8 in) thick, which attaches broadly to the tree on which the fungus is growing. While typically shaped like a horse's hoof, it can also be more bracket-like with an umbonate attachment to the substrate. The species typically has broad, concentric ridges, with a blunt and rounded margin. The flesh is hard and fibrous, and a cinnamon brown colour. The upper surface is tough, bumpy, hard and woody, varying in colour, usually a light brown or grey. The margin is whitish during periods of growth. The hard crust is from 1 to 2 mm (0.04 to 0.08 in) thick, and covers the tough flesh. The underside has round pores of a cream colour when new, maturing to brown, though they darken when handled. The pores are circular, and there are 2–3 per millimetre. The tubes are 2 to 7 mm (0.08 to 0.28 in) long and a rusty brown colour.

The colouration and size of the fruit body can vary based on where the specimen has grown. Silvery-white, greyish and nearly black specimens have been known. The darkest fruit bodies were previously classified as Fomes nigricans, but this is now recognised as a synonym of Fomes fomentarius. The colour is typically lighter at lower latitudes and altitudes, as well as on fruit bodies in the Northern Hemisphere that grow on the south side of trees.

Tobacco Aztec
  • Botanical: Nicotiana rustica
  • Family: Solanaceae
  • Known as: tabak, lobelia, bladderpod, emetic herb, emetic weed, gagroot, vomitroot, vomitwort, pukeweed, wild tobacco, asthma weed, bladderpod, eyebright
  • Old Use: medicinal and spiritual
  • Aroma: sharp

Tobacco Aztec

Nicotiana rustica is a annual growing to 1.5 m (5ft). It is hardy to zone 8 and is frost tender. It is in flower from Jul to September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs).

Flower petal is green to brown yellow; leaves are simple (lobed or unlobed but not separated into leaflets) arranged alternatively: there is one leaf per node along the stem. Its leaves are wider and rounder than some of our other tobacco species, and the tubular, yellowish flowers are shorter.

Tobacco Indian
  • Botanical: Lobelia inflata
  • Family: Lobelioideae
  • Known as: tabak, lobelia, bladderpod, emetic herb, emetic weed, gagroot, vomitroot, vomitwort, pukeweed, wild tobacco, asthma weed, bladderpod, eyebright
  • Old Use: medicinal
  • Aroma: warm

Tobacco Indian

It is an annual or biennial herbaceous plant growing to 15–100 centimetres (5.9–39.4 in) tall, with stems covered in tiny hairs. Its leaves are usually about 8 centimetres (3.1 in) long, and are ovate and toothed. It has violet flowers that are tinted yellow on the inside, and usually appear in mid-summer and continue to bloom into fall

Tormentil
  • Botanical: Potentilla erecta
  • Family: Rosaceae
  • Known as: Septfoil, Blutwurz, Dilledapp, Durmentill, Natterwurz, Rotwurz, Ruhrwurz, Siebenfinger, Tormentill
  • Old Use: medicine, culinary, industry

Tormentil

Potentilla erecta is a low, clump-forming plant with slender, procumbent to arcuately upright stalks, growing 10–30 centimetres (3.9–11.8 in) tall and with non-rooting runners. It grows wild predominantly in Scandinavia, Europe, and western Asia mostly on acid soils in a wide variety of habitats, such as mountains, heaths, meadows, sandy soils and dunes.This plant is flowering from May to August/September. There is one yellow, 7–11 millimetres (0.28–0.43 in) wide flower, growing at the tip of a long stalk. There are almost always four notched petals, each with a length between 3 and 6 mm. Four petals are rather uncommon in the rose family. The petals are somewhat longer than the sepals. There are 20–25 stamens. The radical leaves have a long petiole, while the leaves on the flowering stalks are usually sessile or with short petioles. The glossy leaves are alternate, ternate, consisting of three obovate leaflets with serrate margins. The paired stipules are leaflike and palmately lobed. There are 2–8 dry, inedible fruits.

Turmeric
  • Botanical: Curcuma longa
  • Family: Zingiberaceae
  • Known as: Turmeric, Curcuma longa, Indian saffron, Kurkuma, Gelber Ingwer, Gelbwurz, Gilbwurz
  • Old Use: culinary; medicinal
  • Aroma: fresh, spicy, woody

Turmeric

A perennial plant with roots or tubers oblong, palmate, and deep orange inside; root-leaves about 2 feet long, lanceolate, long, petioled, tapering at each end, smooth, of a uniform green; petioles sheathing spike, erect, central, oblong, green; flowers dull yellow, three or five together surrounded by bracteolae. It is propagated by cuttings from the root, which when dry is in curved cylindrical or oblong tubers 2 or 3 inches in length, and an inch in diameter, pointed or tapering at one end, yellowish externally, with transverse, parallel rings internally deep orange or reddish brown, marked with shining points, dense, solid, short, granular fracture, forming a lemon yellow powder. It has a peculiar fragrant odour and a bitterish, slightly acrid taste, like ginger, exciting warmth in the mouth and colouring the saliva yellow.

Uva Ursi
  • Botanical: Arctostaphylos uva-ursi
  • Family: Ericaceae
  • Known as: kinnikinnick, pinemat manzanita, Echte Bärentraube, Immergrüne Bärentraube
  • Old Use: medical, industry

Uva Ursi

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi is a small procumbent woody groundcover shrub 5–30 cm high. The leaves are evergreen, remaining green for 1–3 years before falling. The fruit is a red berry. The leaves are shiny, small, and feel thick and stiff. They are alternately arranged on the stems. Undersides of leaves are lighter green than on the tops. New stems can be red if the plant is in full sun, but are green in shadier areas. Older stems are brown. In spring, they have white or pink flowers. Pure stands of Arctostaphylos uva-ursi can be extremely dense, with heights rarely taller than 6 inches. Erect branching twigs emerge from long flexible prostrate stems, which are produced by single roots. The trailing stems will layer, sending out small roots periodically. The finely textured velvety branches are initially white to pale green, becoming smooth and red-brown with maturity. The small solitary three scaled buds are dark brown. The simple leaves of this broadleaf evergreen are alternately arranged on branches. Each leaf is held by a twisted leaf stalk, vertically. The leathery dark green leaves are an inch long and have rounded tips tapering back to the base. In fall, the leaves begin changing from a dark green to a reddish-green to purple. Terminal clusters of small urn-shaped flowers bloom from May to June. The perfect flowers are white to pink, and bear round, fleshy or mealy, bright red to pink fruits called drupes. This smooth, glossy skinned fruit will range from 1/4 to 1/2 inch in diameter. The fruit will persist on the plant into early winter. Each drupe contains 1 to 5 hard seeds, which need to be scarified and stratified prior to germination to reduce the seed coat and break embryo dormancy. There is an average of 40,900 cleaned seeds per pound.

Vermouth
  • Botanical: Artemisia absinthium
  • Family: Asteraceae
  • Known as: Vermouth, Absinthium, Absinthe, Wormwood, Common wormwood, Green Ginger, Absinth, Aetsch, Bermet, Bitterals, Else, Eisenkraut, Gottvergesse, Hilligbitter, Magenkraut, Mottenstock, Würmut, Wiegenkraut
  • Aroma: camphorus, earthy, medicinal, warm, woody

Vermouth

Artemisia absinthium is a herbaceous, perennial plant with fibrous roots. The stems are straight, growing to 0.8–1.2 metres (2 ft 7 in–3 ft 11 in) (rarely 1.5 m, but, sometimes even larger) tall, grooved, branched, and silvery-green. The leaves are spirally arranged, greenish-grey above and white below, covered with silky silvery-white trichomes, and bearing minute oil-producing glands; the basal leaves are up to 25 cm long, bipinnate to tripinnate with long petioles, with the cauline leaves (those on the stem) smaller, 5–10 cm long, less divided, and with short petioles; the uppermost leaves can be both simple and sessile (without a petiole).

Vijayasar
  • Botanical: Pterocarpus marsupium
  • Family: Fabaceae
  • Known as: Malabar Kino, Indian Kino Tree, Benga, Bijiayasal, Piasal, Venkai
  • Old Use: medical, industry
  • Aroma: sharp

Vijayasar

It is of moderate size to large tree. The height ranges from 15 to 30 meters. The stem is stout and crooked with widely spreading branches. The bark is thick and dark brown to grey in colour. Leaves are compound and imparipinnate. Leaflets are 5-7, coriaceous, oblong, obtuse, emarginated or even bilobed at the apex and glabrous on both surfaces. The petioles are round, smooth and waved from leaflet to leaflet, 5 or 6 inches long and there are no stipules. Panicles are terminal and very large; ramifications are bifarious, like the leaves. Peduncles and pedicals are round and a little downy. Bracts are small, caduceus, solitary below each division and subdivision of the panicle. The flowers are very numerous, white, with a small tinge of yellow. Vexillum is with a long, slender claw, very broad; sides reflexed, waved, curled and veined; keel is two pettled, adhering slightly for a little way near the middle, waved, etc., same as the vexillum. Stamens are 10, united near the base, but soon dividing into two parcels of 5 each; anthers are globose and 2-lobed. Ovary is oblong, pedicelled, hairy, generally 2-celled; cells are transverse and 1­seeded. Style is ascending. The legume, which is borne on a long petiole, is three-fourths orbicular, the upper remainder, which extends from the pedicel to the remainder of the style, is straight, the whole surrounded with a waved, veiny, downy, membraneous wing, swelled, rugose, woody in the center, where the seed is lodged and not opening; generally one but sometimes 2-celled. Seeds are single and reniform

Wheat Common
  • Botanical: Triticum aestivum
  • Family: Poaceae
  • Known as: Common wheat, Wheat, Triticum aestivum, Bread Wheat, Weichweizen, Brotweizen, Weizen
  • Old Use: culinary
  • Aroma: earthy

Wheat Common

An annual, largely hairless grass, producing a spike (flowering and fruiting part) on each of its 1–5 culms (stems). Height is variable, from about 1.2–1.5 m for 1930s cultivars to about 85 cm for most modern cultivars, with a simultaneous strengthening of the culm so as to bear the increased weight (resulting from the increased grain yield) of the spike. This has been achieved by incorporating dwarfing genes, from Japanese cultivar Norin 10, into most modern (post 1960s) varieties.

White Hellebore
  • Botanical: Veratrum album
  • Family: Lilaceae
  • Known as: False helleborine, European white hellebore, White veratrum, Weißer Germer, Nieswurz, Hemmer wurzn, Lauskraut, Lauswurz
  • Old Use: medical, industry

White Hellebore

The plant is a perennial herb with a stout vertical rhizome covered with remnants of old leaf sheaths. The stout, simple stems are 50 to 175 cm tall. They have been mistaken for yellow gentian, Gentiana lutea, which is used in beverages, resulting in poisoning.

Yuca
  • Botanical: Manihot utilissima
  • Family: Euphorbiaceae
  • Known as: Manihot esculenta, Tapioca, Cassava, manioc, yuca, balinghoy, mogo, mandioca, kamoteng kahoy, tapioca-root, maniok,
  • Old Use: medical, culinary

Yuca

The cassava root is long and tapered, with a firm, homogeneous flesh encased in a detachable rind, about 1 mm thick, rough and brown on the outside. Commercial varieties can be 5 to 10 cm (2.0 to 3.9 in) in diameter at the top, and around 15 to 30 cm (5.9 to 11.8 in) long. A woody cordon runs along the root's axis. The flesh can be chalk-white or yellowish. 

Zedoary
  • Botanical: Curcuma zedoaria
  • Family: Zingiberaceae
  • Known as: Zedoary, Curcuma zedoaria, Giftheil, Zitwer
  • Old Use: culinary, medicinal uses

Zedoary

Curcuma zedoaria, also known as Zedoary, is an herb that grows up to 1.2 m in height. This plant has both vertical aerial stems (pseudostems) and horizontal underground stems known as rhizomes, which allow the plant to spread so this species often grows in large clumps.
The swollen underground stems are yellow or orange colored inside and are aromatic when crushed. The leaves of Zedoary are oblong and can be up to 81 cm long and 18 cm wide. This species can be recognized by the presence of a purplish hue along the midvein of the leafblades.