• borst
  • lavender
  • dandelion

Stomach & Intestinal

Lesser Galangal
  • Botanical: Alpinia officinarum
  • Family: Zingaberaceae or Scilaminae
  • Known as: Languas officinarum, Echter Galgant, Galgantwurzel, Kleiner Galgant, Galgant, Siam Galgant
  • Old Use: medical

Lesser Galangal

This herbaceous plant can grow up to ten feet in height, though three to five feet is more common. The leaves are lanceolate (long and thin), and the flowers are white with streaks of red, growing from a spike at the top. The plant's rhizomes, the part known as galangal, are thin and tough, and they are the principal reason the plant is cultivated. They have orange flesh with a brown coating, and have an aromatic odor and a pungent flavor. These are smaller than greater galangal.

Lily of the Valley
  • Botanical: Convallaria majalis
  • Family: Asparagaceae
  • Known as: Augenkraut, Chaldron, Faldron, Galleieli, Glasblümli, Herrenblümli, Maiblume, Maiblümchen, Maienlilie, Maizauken, Marienglöckchen, Marienriesli, Niesekraut, Schillerlilie, Schneetropfen, Springauf, Tallilie, Zaucken

Lily of the Valley

C. majalis is a herbaceous perennial plant that forms extensive colonies by spreading underground stems called rhizomes. New upright shoots are formed at the ends of stolons in summer, these upright dormant stems are often called pips. These grow in the spring into new leafy shoots that still remain connected to the other shoots under ground, often forming extensive colonies. The stems grow to 15–30 cm tall, with one or two leaves 10–25 cm long, flowering stems have two leaves and a raceme of 5–15 flowers on the stem apex.

Linden
  • Botanical: Tilia
  • Family: Malvaceae, Tiliaceae
  • Known as: Lime Tree, Bee Tree, tilia grandifolia, tilia cordata, Linden, Sommerlinde, Grossblättrige Linde, Winterlinde, Stein-Linde, Kleinblättrige Linde
  • Old Use: medicinal
  • Aroma: citrus, forest, warm

Linden

It is a large tree attaining a height of from 60 to 125 feet with a trunk diameter of 2 to 5 feet, with spreading branches. The somewhat leathery leaves are pointed at the apex, heart-shaped at the base, with sharply toothed margins and are borne on stems about 1 or 2 inches long. The flowers are produced in great abundance from May to June in drooping clusters composed of from 6 to 20 yellowish, very fragrant flowers.

Liquorice
  • Botanical: Glycyrrhiza glabra
  • Family: Fabaceae
  • Known as: Licorice, Lakritze, Süßholz
  • Old Use: medical, culinary, industry
  • Aroma: sweet

Liquorice

It is a herbaceous perennial, growing to 1 m in height, with pinnate leaves about 7–15 cm (3–6 in) long, with 9–17 leaflets. The flowers are 0.8–1.2 cm (1/3 to 1/2 in) long, purple to pale whitish blue, produced in a loose inflorescence. The fruit is an oblong pod, 2–3 cm (1 in) long, containing several seeds. The roots are stoloniferous.

Lovage
  • Botanical: Levisticum officinale
  • Family: Apiaceae or Umbelliferae
  • Known as: Liebstöckel, Maggikraut, Luststock, Nusskraut
  • Old Use: medical, industry, culinary

Lovage

Lovage is an erect, herbaceous, perennial plant growing to 1.8–2.5 m tall, with a basal rosette of leaves and stems with further leaves, the flowers being produced in umbels at the top of the stems. The stems and leaves are shiny glabrous green to yellow-green and smell of lime when crushed. The larger basal leaves are up to 70 cm long, tripinnate, with broad triangular to rhomboidal, acutely pointed leaflets with a few marginal teeth; the stem leaves are smaller, and less divided with few leaflets. The flowers are yellow to greenish-yellow, 2–3 mm diameter, produced in globose umbels up to 10–15 cm diameter; flowering is in late spring. The fruit is a dry two-parted schizocarp 4–7 mm long, mature in autumn.

Love in a Mist
  • Botanical: Nigella damascena
  • Family: Ranunculaceae
  • Known as: Ragged Lady, Jungfer im Grünen
  • Old Use: medicinal, culinary
  • Aroma: spicy

Love in a Mist

Nigella damascena (love-in-a-mist, ragged lady) is an annual garden flowering plant, belonging to the buttercup family Ranunculaceae.

It grows to 20–50 cm (8–20 in) tall, with pinnately divided, thread-like, alternate leaves.

The flowers, blooming in early summer, are most commonly different shades of blue, but can be white, pink, or pale purple, with 5 to 25 sepals. The actual petals are located at the base of the stamens and are minute and clawed. The sepals are the only colored part of the perianth. The four to five carpels of the compound pistil have each an erect style.

The fruit is a large and inflated capsule, growing from a compound ovary, and is composed of several united follicles, each containing numerous seeds. This is rather exceptional for a member of the buttercup family. The capsule becomes brown in late summer. The plant self-seeds, growing on the same spot year after year.

Manna Ash
  • Botanical: Fraxinus ornus
  • Family: Oleaceae
  • Known as: Flowering Ash, South European flowering ash
  • Old Use: medical
  • Aroma: sweet

Manna Ash

Fraxinus ornus is a medium-sized deciduous tree growing to 15–25 m tall with a trunk up to 1 m diameter. The bark is dark grey, remaining smooth even on old trees. The buds are pale pinkish-brown to grey-brown, with a dense covering of short grey hairs. The leaves are in opposite pairs, pinnate, 20–30 cm long, with 5-9 leaflets; the leaflets are broad ovoid, 5–10 cm long and 2–4 cm broad, with a finely serrated and wavy margin, and short but distinct petiolules 5–15 mm long; the autumn colour is variable, yellow to purplish. The flowers are produced in dense panicles 10–20 cm long after the new leaves appear in late spring, each flower with four slender creamy white petals 5–6 mm long; they are pollinated by insects. The fruit is a slender samara 1.5-2.5 cm long, the seed 2 mm broad and the wing 4–5 mm broad, green ripening brown.

Masterwort
  • Botanical: Imperatoria ostruthium
  • Family: Apiaceae or Umbelliferae
  • Known as: Peucedanum ostruthium, Masterwort, Peucedanum ostruthium, Meisterwurz,
  • Old Use: medical
  • Aroma: sharp, spicy

Masterwort

A smooth, perennial plant, the stout, furrowed stem growing 2 to 3 feet high. The dark-green leaves, which somewhat resemble those of Angelica, are on very long foot-stalks and are divided into `three leaflets, each of which is often again sub-divided into three. The umbels of flowers are large and many-rayed, the corollas white; the fruit has very broad wings.

Mastic Tree
  • Botanical: Pistacia lentiscus
  • Family: Pistaciaceae
  • Known as: Mastixstrauch, Wilde Pistazie
  • Old Use: medical, culinary, industry
  • Aroma: resinous, smoky

Mastic Tree

A shrub rarely growing higher than 12 feet. The best Mastic occurs in roundish tears about the size of a small pea, or in flattened, irregular pear-shaped, or oblong pieces covered with a whitish powder. They are pale yellow in colour, which darkens with age. The odour is agreeable and the taste mild and resinous, and when chewed it becomes soft, so that it can easily be masticated. This characteristic enables it to be distinguished froma resin called Sanderach, which it resembles, but which when bitten breaks to powder.

  • Botanical: Piper aduncum
  • Family: Piperaceae
  • Known as: Higuillo de hoja menuda, Gebogener Pfeffer
  • Old Use: medical, culinary
  • Aroma: spicy

Matico

Matico is a tropical, evergreen, shrubby tree that grows to the height of 6 to 7 meter (20 to 23 ft) with lance-shaped leaves that are 12 to 20 centimeter (5 to 8 in) long. 

Mayapple
  • Botanical: Podophyllum peltatum
  • Family: Berberidaceae
  • Known as: hogapple, Indian apple, mayflower, umbrella plant, wild lemon, wild mandrake, American mandrake, devil's apple, Schildförmiges Fußblatt, Maiapfel, Entenfuß, Amerikanischer Maiapfel
  • Old Use: medical
  • Aroma: exotic

Mayapple

Mayapples are woodland plants, typically growing in colonies derived from a single root. The stems grow to 30–40 cm tall, with palmately lobed umbrella-like leaves up to 20–40 cm diameter with 3–9 shallowly to deeply cut lobes. The plants produce several stems from a creeping underground rhizome; some stems bear a single leaf and do not produce any flower or fruit, while flowering stems produce a pair or more leaves with 1–8 flowers in the axil between the apical leaves. The flowers are white, yellow or red, 2–6 cm diameter with 6–9 petals, and mature into a green, yellow or red fleshy fruit 2–5 cm long.

Mezereon
  • Botanical: Daphne mezereum
  • Family: Thymelaeaceae
  • Known as: February daphne, mezereon, mezereum, spurge laurel or spurge olive
  • Old Use: medical, industry

Mezereon

It is a deciduous shrub growing to 1.5 m tall. The leaves are soft, 3–8 cm long and 1–2 cm broad, arranged spirally on the stems. The flowers are produced in early spring on the bare stems before the leaves appear. They have a four-lobed pink or light purple (rarely white) perianth 10–15 mm diameter, and are strongly scented. The fruit is a bright red berry 7–12 mm diameter; it is very poisonous for people, though fruit-eating birds like thrushes are immune and eat them, dispersing the seeds in their droppings.

Mistletoe
  • Botanical: Viscum album
  • Family: Santalaceae
  • Known as: Mistletoe, Viscum album, European Mistletoe, Common Mistletoe, Mistel, Affalter, Albranken, Birnäpsel, Bocksfutter, Donarbesen, Donnerbeseb, Drudenfuss, Geisskraut, Heil aller Schäden, Heiligkreuzholz, Hexenbesen, Hexenchrut, Hexennest, Immergrün, Kenster
  • Old Use: ceremonial use

Mistletoe

The stem is yellowish and smooth, freely forked, separating when dead into bone-like joints. The leaves are tongue-shaped, broader towards the end, 1 to 3 inches long, very thick and leathery, of a dull yellow-green colour, arranged in pairs, with very short footstalks. The flowers, small and inconspicuous, are arranged in threes, in close short spikes or clusters in the forks of the branches, and are of two varieties, the male and female occurring on different plants. Neither male nor female flowers have a corolla, the parts of the fructification springing from the yellowish calyx.

Nutmeg
  • Botanical: Myristica fragrans
  • Family: Myristicaceae
  • Known as: Nutmeg, Mace, Muskat, Muskatblüte, Macis
  • Old Use: culinary; medicinal
  • Aroma: spicy, sweet, woody

Nutmeg

The tree is about 25 feet high, has a greyish-brown smooth bark, abounding in a yellow juice. The branches spread in whorls - alternate leaves, on petioles about 1 inch long, elliptical, glabrous, obtuse at base - acuminate, aromatic, dark green and glossy above, paler underside and 4 to 6 inches long. Flowers dioecious, small in axillary racemes.

Peduncles and pedicles glabrous. Male flowers three to five more on a peduncle. Calyx urceolate, thick and fleshy, covered with an indistinct reddish pubescence dingy pale yellow, cut into three erect teeth. Female flowers differ little from the male, except pedicel is often solitary.

Oak Durmast
  • Botanical: Quercus petraea
  • Family: Fagaceae
  • Known as: Sessile oak, Cornish oak, Durmast oak
  • Old Use: cooking
  • Aroma: forest

Oak Durmast

The sessile oak is a large deciduous tree up to 20–40 m (66–131 ft) tall, in the white oak section of the genus (Quercus sect. Quercus) and similar to the Pedunculate oak, Q. robur, with which it overlaps extensively in range. The leaves are 7–14 cm (2.8–5.5 in) long and 4–8 cm broad, evenly lobed with five to six lobes on each side, and a 1 cm petiole. The flowers are catkins, produced in the spring. The fruit is an acorn 2–3 cm long and 1–2 cm broad, which matures in about six months.